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Family History and the Risk for Breast or Ovarian Cancer - Topic Overview

What is a BRCA gene change? continued...

Having a BRCA gene change is rare. Most women with a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer don't have a BRCA gene change.

Before you have a gene test, you will need to see a genetic counselor. Counseling will help you make an informed decision about whether to have a BRCA gene test. It is often covered by insurance, but check with your insurance company to find out for sure.

Ashkenazi Jews are more likely to have one of these BRCA genes. Some experts recommend genetic counseling for Ashkenazi women if they have one or both of the following:4

  • Any first-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer at age 50 or younger
  • Two second-degree relatives on the same side of the family with breast or ovarian cancer

If you are not of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, some experts recommend genetic counseling if you have one or more of the following:4

  • Two first-degree relatives with breast cancer, one of whom was diagnosed at age 50 or younger
  • Three or more first- or second-degree relatives with breast cancer, diagnosed at any age
  • Both breast and ovarian cancers among your first- and second-degree relatives
  • A first-degree relative with cancer in both breasts
  • Two or more relatives with ovarian cancer
  • One relative with both breast and ovarian cancer
  • A male relative with breast cancer

In the table below, the figures are only rough estimates from research studies. Lifetime risk means the chance that you will get this cancer sometime during your life. These numbers may not apply to you, but they can give you an idea of how high your risk may be.

How does having a BRCA gene change affect your lifetime risk?


Breast cancer risk

Ovarian cancer risk

Average women

About 12 out of 100 women will get breast cancer.

About 1 out of 100 women will get ovarian cancer.

BRCA gene carriers

About 35 to 84 out of 100 will get breast cancer.

About 15 to 40 out of 100 will get ovarian cancer.5

In the table above, the range for BRCA gene carriers is very broad. That's because different studies have had different results. More study is needed to get a clearer idea of what the risk is for women who have a BRCA gene change.

Pictures may help you understand these numbers better. See the following pictures to get a better idea of how much a BRCA gene change increases your risk for:

If you are worried that you may have a BRCA gene change, talk to your doctor.

Breast Cancer Risk: Should I Have a BRCA Gene Test?
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Family History and the Risk for Breast or Ovarian Cancer Topics

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