Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Cervical Cancer Screening and Cervical Cancer Treatment are also available.
Avoidance of Human Papillomavirus Infection
Based on solid evidence, the following measures are effective to avoid human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and thus cervical cancer:
Abstinence from sexual activity
Magnitude of Effect: Abstinence prevents HPV infection.
Study Design: Evidence obtained from cohort and case-control studies.
Added the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form to the list of instruments used to assess fatigue (cited Stein et al. as reference 24).
Added text about a study that demonstrated that managing symptoms (e.g., pain, nausea, and decreased appetite) can have a significant positive impact on fatigue (cited de Raaf et al. as reference 5).
Added Other Pharmacologic Interventions as a new subsection.
Revised text to state that one fairly large study evaluated medical qigong for cancer-related fatigue in a heterogeneous group of 162 patients either undergoing cancer treatment or having finished cancer treatment.
Added text about a study of qigong to improve quality of life in women undergoing radiation therapy for breast cancer (cited Chen et al. as reference 57).
Added text to state that the major weakness limiting interpretation and integration of both of these studies, despite differing results, is that there was no attempt to control for attention or any of the social aspects of the intervention.
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