Fatigue (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Intervention
Table 2. Centrally Acting Stimulants for Adult Cancer Patients continued...
The qigong intervention was delivered in 90-minute group sessions twice a week for 10 weeks, for 1,800 minutes of treatment. The usual-care group did not receive any group meetings or additional provider interaction. It is therefore difficult to say what qigong uniquely provided over and above nonspecific or group-interaction effects. It is also not known how much survivors would need to continue performing qigong to maintain benefits. There were no adverse events in this study, so other than time and resource expenditure, it is difficult to pinpoint a downside to encouraging patients to adopt such an activity. One important strength of the study evaluating qigong was the collection of serum to measure markers of inflammation. At the end of 10 weeks, the C-reactive protein of patients in the medical qigong group decreased 3.6 mg/L, while patients in the usual-care group experienced an increase in this marker of 19.57 mg/L. This was a statistically significant difference.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has long been used to treat a variety of psychophysiological problems, with therapy focusing on the thoughts (cognitions) and functional behaviors relevant to the presenting problems. In a randomized clinical trial, 98 mixed-type cancer survivors (intervention group = 50, wait-list control = 48) experiencing severe fatigue not attributable to a specific somatic cause were provided individual CBT.[Level of evidence: I] The CBT focused on each participant's unique pattern of the following six possible factors that might serve to perpetuate their post–cancer treatment fatigue:
- Insufficient coping with the experience of cancer.
- Fear of disease recurrence.
- Dysfunctional cognitions regarding fatigue.
- Dysregulation of sleep.
- Dysregulation of activity.
- Low social support/negative social interactions.
The number of therapy sessions varied according to the number of perpetuating factors (range: 5–26 1-hour sessions; mean: 12.5 sessions); results showed a clinically significant decrease in fatigue severity and functional impairment.
Activity and Rest
Health professionals can work with patients with cancer to develop an activity/rest program based on an assessment of the patient's fatigue patterns that allows the best use of the individual's energy. Any changes in daily routine require additional energy expenditure. Individuals with cancer should be advised about setting priorities and maintaining a reasonable schedule. Health professionals may assist patients by providing information on support services that are available to help with daily activities and responsibilities. An occupational therapy consultation can be of assistance in evaluating energy conservation methods. Sleep hygiene, including avoidance of lying in bed at times other than sleep, shortening naps to no more than 1 hour, avoiding distracting noise (e.g., television, radio) during sleep hours, and other measures may improve sleep and activity cycles.