Duodenal carcinoids are rare, and there is no consensus on the optimal extent of surgical treatment. In a retrospective review of 24 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of duodenal carcinoid tumor, most tumors (89%) measured smaller than 2 cm in diameter, and most (85%) were limited to the mucosa or submucosa. Lymph node metastases were identified in surgical specimens in 7 (54%) of 13 patients in whom lymph nodes were examined, including 2 patients with tumors smaller than 1 cm, which were limited to the submucosa. At a mean follow-up of 46 months, the disease-specific survival rate was 100%, and only 2 patients had recurrences in regional lymph nodes. No patient was reported to have distant metastases or the carcinoid syndrome.[Level of evidence: 3iiB] The authors of this study concluded that, although duodenal carcinoids are indolent, the presence of regional lymph node metastases cannot be predicted reliably on the basis of tumor size or depth of invasion, and their impact on survival is unclear.
In general, endoscopic excision of primary duodenal carcinoids appears to be most appropriate for tumors smaller than 1 cm. Duodenal carcinoids smaller than 2 cm may be excised locally; for tumors between 1 cm and 2 cm, complete resection is ensured by operative full-thickness excision.[1,2] Follow-up endoscopy is indicated. Tumors larger than 1 cm may be difficult to remove completely endoscopically and should be evaluated with endoscopic ultrasonography before endoscopic resection is attempted because of their potential to invade beyond the submucosa.
Cartilage is a type of tough, flexible connective tissue (see Question 1).
Cartilage from cows (bovine cartilage) and sharks has been studied as a treatment for people with cancer and other medical conditions for more than 30 years (see Question 2).
Laboratory and animal studies have looked at whether bovine and shark cartilage products can kill cancer cells, make the immune system more active against cancer, and prevent the body from making the new blood vessels that a tumor needs to grow...
Appropriate management of tumors larger than 2 cm can be problematic. However, in general, these tumors can be treated with operative full-thickness excision and regional lymphadenectomy. Lymphadenectomy is performed even in the face of negative preoperative imaging because of the high rate of lymph node metastasis for these tumors.
In addition, some authors recommend that for tumors larger than 2 cm, a regional lymphadenectomy includes the lymph nodes in the following locations:
Posterior to the duodenum and pancreatic head and anterior to the inferior vena cava.