Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®): Genetics - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Psychosocial Issues in Hereditary Colon Cancer Syndromes
Table 17. Summary of Studies Evaluating Attitudes Toward, Interest in, or Intention to Use Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) for FAPa, LSb, and PJSa continued...
Several longitudinal studies have evaluated psychological outcomes before genetic counseling and testing for LS and at multiple time periods in the year after disclosure of test results. One study examined changes in anxiety based on personal cancer history, gender, and age (younger than 50 years vs. older than 50 years) before and 2 weeks after a pretest genetic-counseling session. Affected and unaffected female participants in both age groups and affected men older than 50 years showed significant decreases in anxiety over time. Unaffected men younger than 50 years maintained low levels of anxiety; however, affected men younger than 50 years showed no reductions in the anxiety levels reported at the time of pretest counseling. A study that evaluated psychological distress 8 weeks postcounseling (before disclosure of test results) among both affected and unaffected individuals found a significant reduction in general anxiety, cancer worry, and distress. In general, findings from studies within the time period immediately after disclosure of mutation status (e.g., 2 weeks to 1 month) suggested that MMR mutation carriers may experience increased general distress,[31,36] cancer-specific distress,[29,30] or cancer worries  relative to their pretest measurements. Carriers often experienced significantly higher distress after disclosure of test results than do individuals who do not carry a mutation previously identified in the family (noncarrier).[29,30,31,36] However, in most cases, carriers' distress levels subsided during the course of the year after disclosure [31,36] and did not differ from pretest distress levels at 1 year postdisclosure.[29,30] Findings from these studies also indicated that noncarriers experienced a reduction or no change in distress up to 1 year after results disclosure.[29,30,31,36] A study that included unaffected individuals and CRC patients found that distress levels among patients did not differ between carriers and individuals who received results that were uninformative or showed a variant of unknown significance at any point up to 1 year posttest and were similar compared with pretest distress levels.
A limited number of studies have examined longer-term psychosocial outcomes after LS genetic counseling and testing.[29,40,41] Longitudinal studies that evaluated psychological distress before and after genetic testing found that long-term distress levels (measured at 3 or 7 years posttesting) among mutation carriers and noncarriers were similar to distress levels at baseline.[29,41] with one exception: noncarriers' cancer-specific distress scores in one study  showed a sustained decrease posttesting and were significantly lower than their baseline scores and with carriers' scores at 1 year posttesting, with a similar trend observed at 3 years posttesting. In one study, carriers were more likely to be worried about CRC risk at 7 years posttesting; however, noncarriers who reported worry about CRC (i.e., "worried to some extent" or "very worried") were more likely to doubt the validity of their test result than were noncarriers who reported no worry. When asked about their satisfaction with the decision to have testing, the majority of carriers and noncarriers were extremely satisfied up to 7 years posttesting and indicated they would be willing to undergo testing again.