The initial approach to the patient is to evaluate the following parameters:
Detection of a monoclonal (or myeloma) protein (M protein) in the serum or urine.
Detection of more than 10% of plasma cells on a bone marrow examination.
Detection of lytic bone lesions or generalized osteoporosis in skeletal x-rays.
Presence of soft tissue plasmacytomas.
Serum albumin and beta-2-microglobulin levels.
Detection of free kappa and lambda serum immunoglobulin light...
Updated statistics with estimated new cases for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 7).
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1)
Added Table 1, Major Clinical Features of MEN1, Familial Isolated Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism–Jaw Tumor Syndrome, and Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (cited Christensen et al. as reference 56).
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2)
Updated statistics with estimated new cases and deaths for 2013 (cited American Cancer Society as reference 26).
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