Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information
Pretreatment factors associated with an adverse outcome in one or more studies include the following:
- Advanced stage of disease.
- Presence of B symptoms.[23,24]
- Presence of bulky disease.
- Extranodal extension.
- Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
- Leukocytosis (white blood cell count 11,500/mm3 or higher).
- Anemia (hemoglobin lower than 11.0 g/dL).
- Male gender.[24,27]
- Response to initial treatment with chemotherapy.[21,28,29]
Prognostic factors identified in selected multi-institutional studies include the following:
- In the Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology (Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie [GPOH]) GPOH-95 study, B symptoms, histology, and male gender were adverse prognostic factors for event-free survival on multivariate analysis.
- In 320 children with clinically staged Hodgkin lymphoma treated in the Stanford-St. Jude-Dana Farber Cancer Institute consortium, male gender; stage IIB, IIIB, or IV disease; white blood cell count of 11,500/mm3 or higher; and hemoglobin lower than 11.0 g/dL were significant prognostic factors for inferior disease-free survival and overall survival (OS). Prognosis was also associated with the number of adverse factors.
- In the CCG-5942 study, the combination of B symptoms and bulky disease was associated with an inferior outcome.
- One single-institutional study showed that African American patients had a higher relapse rate than Caucasian patients, but OS was similar.
The rapidity of response to initial cycles of chemotherapy also appears to be prognostically important and is being used in the research setting to determine subsequent therapy.[28,29,31] Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is being evaluated as a method to assess early response in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET avidity after two cycles of chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma in adults has been shown to predict treatment failure and progression-free survival.[32,33,34] Further studies in children are required to assess the role of early response based on PET. The value of PET avidity to predict outcome and whether improved outcome can be achieved by altering the therapeutic strategy based on early PET response is to be determined.
Although prognostic factors will continue to change because of risk stratification and choice of therapy, parameters such as disease stage, bulk, systemic symptomatology, and early response to chemotherapy are likely to remain relevant to outcome.
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- Araujo I, Bittencourt AL, Barbosa HS, et al.: The high frequency of EBV infection in pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma is related to the classical type in Bahia, Brazil. Virchows Arch 449 (3): 315-9, 2006.
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- Herling M, Rassidakis GZ, Medeiros LJ, et al.: Expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma: associations with presenting features, serum interleukin 10 levels, and clinical outcome. Clin Cancer Res 9 (6): 2114-20, 2003.
- Claviez A, Tiemann M, Lüders H, et al.: Impact of latent Epstein-Barr virus infection on outcome in children and adolescents with Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 23 (18): 4048-56, 2005.
- Jarrett RF, Stark GL, White J, et al.: Impact of tumor Epstein-Barr virus status on presenting features and outcome in age-defined subgroups of patients with classic Hodgkin lymphoma: a population-based study. Blood 106 (7): 2444-51, 2005.
- Chabay PA, Barros MH, Hassan R, et al.: Pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma in 2 South American series: a distinctive epidemiologic pattern and lack of association of Epstein-Barr virus with clinical outcome. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 30 (4): 285-91, 2008.
- Herling M, Rassidakis GZ, Vassilakopoulos TP, et al.: Impact of LMP-1 expression on clinical outcome in age-defined subgroups of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 107 (3): 1240; author reply 1241, 2006.
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- Straus SE, Jaffe ES, Puck JM, et al.: The development of lymphomas in families with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with germline Fas mutations and defective lymphocyte apoptosis. Blood 98 (1): 194-200, 2001.
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- Nachman JB, Sposto R, Herzog P, et al.: Randomized comparison of low-dose involved-field radiotherapy and no radiotherapy for children with Hodgkin's disease who achieve a complete response to chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 20 (18): 3765-71, 2002.
- Rühl U, Albrecht M, Dieckmann K, et al.: Response-adapted radiotherapy in the treatment of pediatric Hodgkin's disease: an interim report at 5 years of the German GPOH-HD 95 trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51 (5): 1209-18, 2001.
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- Dieckmann K, Pötter R, Hofmann J, et al.: Does bulky disease at diagnosis influence outcome in childhood Hodgkin's disease and require higher radiation doses? Results from the German-Austrian Pediatric Multicenter Trial DAL-HD-90. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56 (3): 644-52, 2003.
- Smith RS, Chen Q, Hudson M, et al.: Prognostic factors in pediatric Hodgkin's disease. [Abstract] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51 (3 Suppl 1): 119, 2001.
- Carde P, Koscielny S, Franklin J, et al.: Early response to chemotherapy: a surrogate for final outcome of Hodgkin's disease patients that should influence initial treatment length and intensity? Ann Oncol 13 (Suppl 1): 86-91, 2002.
- Landman-Parker J, Pacquement H, Leblanc T, et al.: Localized childhood Hodgkin's disease: response-adapted chemotherapy with etoposide, bleomycin, vinblastine, and prednisone before low-dose radiation therapy-results of the French Society of Pediatric Oncology Study MDH90. J Clin Oncol 18 (7): 1500-7, 2000.
- Metzger ML, Castellino SM, Hudson MM, et al.: Effect of race on the outcome of pediatric patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 26 (8): 1282-8, 2008.
- Weiner MA, Leventhal B, Brecher ML, et al.: Randomized study of intensive MOPP-ABVD with or without low-dose total-nodal radiation therapy in the treatment of stages IIB, IIIA2, IIIB, and IV Hodgkin's disease in pediatric patients: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol 15 (8): 2769-79, 1997.
- Hutchings M, Loft A, Hansen M, et al.: FDG-PET after two cycles of chemotherapy predicts treatment failure and progression-free survival in Hodgkin lymphoma. Blood 107 (1): 52-9, 2006.
- Gallamini A, Hutchings M, Rigacci L, et al.: Early interim 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is prognostically superior to international prognostic score in advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a report from a joint Italian-Danish study. J Clin Oncol 25 (24): 3746-52, 2007.
- Dann EJ, Bar-Shalom R, Tamir A, et al.: Risk-adapted BEACOPP regimen can reduce the cumulative dose of chemotherapy for standard and high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma with no impairment of outcome. Blood 109 (3): 905-9, 2007.