Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from neural crest tissue that develops into sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia throughout the body.
The most recent World Health Organization classification utilizes the term pheochromocytoma exclusively for tumors arising from the adrenal medulla, and the term extra-adrenal paraganglioma for similar tumors that arise from other locations.
Incidence and Mortality
The incidence of pheochromocytoma is 2...
Supraglottic laryngectomy or total laryngectomy, depending on location of the lesion, clinical status of the patient, and expertise of the treatment team. Careful selection must be made to ensure adequate pulmonary and swallowing function postoperatively.
Postoperative radiation therapy is indicated for positive or close surgical margins.
Radiation should be preferred because of the good results, preservation of the voice, and the possibility of surgical salvage in patients whose disease recurs locally.
Treatment options under clinical evaluation:
Hyperfractionated radiation therapy to improve tumor control rates and diminish late toxicity to normal tissue.[3,5]
Isotretinoin (i.e., 13-cis-retinoic acid) daily for 1 year to prevent development of second upper aerodigestive tract primary tumors.
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage II laryngeal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
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Chepeha DR, Haxer MJ, Lyden T: Rehabilitation after treatment of head and neck cancer. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 781-8.
Wang CC, ed.: Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Neoplasms. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1997.
Ogura JH, Sessions DG, Spector GJ: Conservation surgery for epidermoid carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. Laryngoscope 85 (11 pt 1): 1808-15, 1975.
Parsons JT, Mendenhall WM, Cassisi NJ, et al.: Hyperfractionation for head and neck cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 14 (4): 649-58, 1988.
Hong WK, Lippman SM, Itri LM, et al.: Prevention of second primary tumors with isotretinoin in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 323 (12): 795-801, 1990.
Mittal B, Marks JE, Ogura JH: Transglottic carcinoma. Cancer 53 (1): 151-61, 1984.
Medini E, Medini I, Lee CK, et al.: Curative radiotherapy for stage II-III squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx. Am J Clin Oncol 21 (3): 302-5, 1998.
Mendenhall WM, Amdur RJ, Morris CG, et al.: T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 19 (20): 4029-36, 2001.
Steiner W: Results of curative laser microsurgery of laryngeal carcinomas. Am J Otolaryngol 14 (2): 116-21, 1993 Mar-Apr.
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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute
May 28, 2015
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