Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started
My Medicine

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Late Effects of the Musculoskeletal System

Table 13. Bone and Joint Late Effects continued...

Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for musculoskeletal system late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.


  1. Denys D, Kaste SC, Kun LE, et al.: The effects of radiation on craniofacial skeletal growth: a quantitative study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 45 (1): 7-13, 1998.
  2. Estilo CL, Huryn JM, Kraus DH, et al.: Effects of therapy on dentofacial development in long-term survivors of head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma: the memorial sloan-kettering cancer center experience. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 25 (3): 215-22, 2003.
  3. Gevorgyan A, La Scala GC, Neligan PC, et al.: Radiation-induced craniofacial bone growth disturbances. J Craniofac Surg 18 (5): 1001-7, 2007.
  4. Karsila-Tenovuo S, Jahnukainen K, Peltomäki T, et al.: Disturbances in craniofacial morphology in children treated for solid tumors. Oral Oncol 37 (7): 586-92, 2001.
  5. Kaste SC, Chen G, Fontanesi J, et al.: Orbital development in long-term survivors of retinoblastoma. J Clin Oncol 15 (3): 1183-9, 1997.
  6. Fletcher BD: Effects of pediatric cancer therapy on the musculoskeletal system. Pediatr Radiol 27 (8): 623-36, 1997.
  7. Hogeboom CJ, Grosser SC, Guthrie KA, et al.: Stature loss following treatment for Wilms tumor. Med Pediatr Oncol 36 (2): 295-304, 2001.
  8. Katzman H, Waugh T, Berdon W: Skeletal changes following irradiation of childhood tumors. J Bone Joint Surg Am 51 (5): 825-42, 1969.
  9. Merchant TE, Nguyen L, Nguyen D, et al.: Differential attenuation of clavicle growth after asymmetric mantle radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59 (2): 556-61, 2004.
  10. Probert JC, Parker BR: The effects of radiation therapy on bone growth. Radiology 114 (1): 155-62, 1975.
  11. Probert JC, Parker BR, Kaplan HS: Growth retardation in children after megavoltage irradiation of the spine. Cancer 32 (3): 634-9, 1973.
  12. Willman KY, Cox RS, Donaldson SS: Radiation induced height impairment in pediatric Hodgkin's disease. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 28 (1): 85-92, 1994.
  13. Paulino AC, Wen BC, Brown CK, et al.: Late effects in children treated with radiation therapy for Wilms' tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 46 (5): 1239-46, 2000.
  14. Sklar CA, Constine LS: Chronic neuroendocrinological sequelae of radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 31 (5): 1113-21, 1995.
  15. Brownstein CM, Mertens AC, Mitby PA, et al.: Factors that affect final height and change in height standard deviation scores in survivors of childhood cancer treated with growth hormone: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89 (9): 4422-7, 2004.
  16. Packer RJ, Boyett JM, Janss AJ, et al.: Growth hormone replacement therapy in children with medulloblastoma: use and effect on tumor control. J Clin Oncol 19 (2): 480-7, 2001.
  17. Chow EJ, Friedman DL, Yasui Y, et al.: Decreased adult height in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. J Pediatr 150 (4): 370-5, 375.e1, 2007.
  18. Sklar C, Mertens A, Walter A, et al.: Final height after treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: comparison of no cranial irradiation with 1800 and 2400 centigrays of cranial irradiation. J Pediatr 123 (1): 59-64, 1993.
  19. Bongers ME, Francken AB, Rouwé C, et al.: Reduction of adult height in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer 45 (2): 139-43, 2005.
  20. Huma Z, Boulad F, Black P, et al.: Growth in children after bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia. Blood 86 (2): 819-24, 1995.
  21. Leung W, Ahn H, Rose SR, et al.: A prospective cohort study of late sequelae of pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Medicine (Baltimore) 86 (4): 215-24, 2007.
  22. Sanders JE: Growth and development after hematopoietic cell transplant in children. Bone Marrow Transplant 41 (2): 223-7, 2008.
  23. Sanders JE, Guthrie KA, Hoffmeister PA, et al.: Final adult height of patients who received hematopoietic cell transplantation in childhood. Blood 105 (3): 1348-54, 2005.
  24. Oeffinger KC, Hudson MM, Landier W: Survivorship: childhood cancer survivors. Prim Care 36 (4): 743-80, 2009.
  25. Nagarajan R, Neglia JP, Clohisy DR, et al.: Limb salvage and amputation in survivors of pediatric lower-extremity bone tumors: what are the long-term implications? J Clin Oncol 20 (22): 4493-501, 2002.
  26. Aulivola B, Hile CN, Hamdan AD, et al.: Major lower extremity amputation: outcome of a modern series. Arch Surg 139 (4): 395-9; discussion 399, 2004.
  27. Kaste SC, Neel MN, Rao BN, et al.: Complications of limb-sparing procedures using endoprosthetic replacements about the knee for pediatric skeletal sarcomas. Pediatr Radiol 31 (2): 62-71, 2001.
  28. Eiser C, Darlington AS, Stride CB, et al.: Quality of life implications as a consequence of surgery: limb salvage, primary and secondary amputation. Sarcoma 5 (4): 189-95, 2001.
  29. Renard AJ, Veth RP, Schreuder HW, et al.: Function and complications after ablative and limb-salvage therapy in lower extremity sarcoma of bone. J Surg Oncol 73 (4): 198-205, 2000.
  30. Antin JH: Clinical practice. Long-term care after hematopoietic-cell transplantation in adults. N Engl J Med 347 (1): 36-42, 2002.
  31. Beredjiklian PK, Drummond DS, Dormans JP, et al.: Orthopaedic manifestations of chronic graft-versus-host disease. J Pediatr Orthop 18 (5): 572-5, 1998 Sep-Oct.
  32. Flowers ME, Parker PM, Johnston LJ, et al.: Comparison of chronic graft-versus-host disease after transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells versus bone marrow in allogeneic recipients: long-term follow-up of a randomized trial. Blood 100 (2): 415-9, 2002.
  33. Wasilewski-Masker K, Kaste SC, Hudson MM, et al.: Bone mineral density deficits in survivors of childhood cancer: long-term follow-up guidelines and review of the literature. Pediatrics 121 (3): e705-13, 2008.
  34. Davies JH, Evans BA, Jenney ME, et al.: Skeletal morbidity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 63 (1): 1-9, 2005.
  35. van der Sluis IM, Boot AM, Hop WC, et al.: Long-term effects of growth hormone therapy on bone mineral density, body composition, and serum lipid levels in growth hormone deficient children: a 6-year follow-up study. Horm Res 58 (5): 207-14, 2002.
  36. van der Sluis IM, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Hählen K, et al.: Bone mineral density, body composition, and height in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. Med Pediatr Oncol 35 (4): 415-20, 2000.
  37. van der Sluis IM, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Hählen K, et al.: Altered bone mineral density and body composition, and increased fracture risk in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr 141 (2): 204-10, 2002.
  38. Arikoski P, Komulainen J, Riikonen P, et al.: Reduced bone density at completion of chemotherapy for a malignancy. Arch Dis Child 80 (2): 143-8, 1999.
  39. Brennan BM, Mughal Z, Roberts SA, et al.: Bone mineral density in childhood survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated without cranial irradiation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90 (2): 689-94, 2005.
  40. Kadan-Lottick N, Marshall JA, Barón AE, et al.: Normal bone mineral density after treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia diagnosed between 1991 and 1998. J Pediatr 138 (6): 898-904, 2001.
  41. Kaste SC, Jones-Wallace D, Rose SR, et al.: Bone mineral decrements in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: frequency of occurrence and risk factors for their development. Leukemia 15 (5): 728-34, 2001.
  42. Warner JT, Evans WD, Webb DK, et al.: Relative osteopenia after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Res 45 (4 Pt 1): 544-51, 1999.
  43. Mandel K, Atkinson S, Barr RD, et al.: Skeletal morbidity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 22 (7): 1215-21, 2004.
  44. Holzer G, Krepler P, Koschat MA, et al.: Bone mineral density in long-term survivors of highly malignant osteosarcoma. J Bone Joint Surg Br 85 (2): 231-7, 2003.
  45. Nysom K, Holm K, Michaelsen KF, et al.: Bone mass after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood. J Clin Oncol 16 (12): 3752-60, 1998.
  46. Benmiloud S, Steffens M, Beauloye V, et al.: Long-term effects on bone mineral density of different therapeutic schemes for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma during childhood. Horm Res Paediatr 74 (4): 241-50, 2010.
  47. McClune BL, Polgreen LE, Burmeister LA, et al.: Screening, prevention and management of osteoporosis and bone loss in adult and pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 46 (1): 1-9, 2011.
  48. Le Meignen M, Auquier P, Barlogis V, et al.: Bone mineral density in adult survivors of childhood acute leukemia: impact of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and other treatment modalities. Blood 118 (6): 1481-9, 2011.
  49. Kodama M, Komura H, Shimizu S, et al.: Efficacy of hormone therapy for osteoporosis in adolescent girls after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a longitudinal study. Fertil Steril 95 (2): 731-5, 2011.
  50. Wilson CL, Dilley K, Ness KK, et al.: Fractures among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 118 (23): 5920-8, 2012.
  51. Paulino AC: Late effects of radiotherapy for pediatric extremity sarcomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 60 (1): 265-74, 2004.
  52. Wagner LM, Neel MD, Pappo AS, et al.: Fractures in pediatric Ewing sarcoma. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 23 (9): 568-71, 2001.
  53. Sala A, Mattano LA Jr, Barr RD: Osteonecrosis in children and adolescents with cancer - an adverse effect of systemic therapy. Eur J Cancer 43 (4): 683-9, 2007.
  54. Elmantaser M, Stewart G, Young D, et al.: Skeletal morbidity in children receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Arch Dis Child 95 (10): 805-9, 2010.
  55. Mattano LA Jr, Devidas M, Nachman JB, et al.: Effect of alternate-week versus continuous dexamethasone scheduling on the risk of osteonecrosis in paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results from the CCG-1961 randomised cohort trial. Lancet Oncol 13 (9): 906-15, 2012.
  56. Aricò M, Boccalatte MF, Silvestri D, et al.: Osteonecrosis: An emerging complication of intensive chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica 88 (7): 747-53, 2003.
  57. Ribeiro RC, Fletcher BD, Kennedy W, et al.: Magnetic resonance imaging detection of avascular necrosis of the bone in children receiving intensive prednisone therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Leukemia 15 (6): 891-7, 2001.
  58. Bürger B, Beier R, Zimmermann M, et al.: Osteonecrosis: a treatment related toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)--experiences from trial ALL-BFM 95. Pediatr Blood Cancer 44 (3): 220-5, 2005.
  59. Karimova EJ, Rai SN, Howard SC, et al.: Femoral head osteonecrosis in pediatric and young adult patients with leukemia or lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 25 (12): 1525-31, 2007.
  60. Karimova EJ, Wozniak A, Wu J, et al.: How does osteonecrosis about the knee progress in young patients with leukemia?: a 2- to 7-year study. Clin Orthop Relat Res 468 (9): 2454-9, 2010.
  61. Campbell S, Sun CL, Kurian S, et al.: Predictors of avascular necrosis of bone in long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation. Cancer 115 (18): 4127-35, 2009.
  62. Kawedia JD, Kaste SC, Pei D, et al.: Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacogenetic determinants of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood 117 (8): 2340-7; quiz 2556, 2011.
  63. Strauss AJ, Su JT, Dalton VM, et al.: Bony morbidity in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 19 (12): 3066-72, 2001.
  64. Faraci M, Calevo MG, Lanino E, et al.: Osteonecrosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in childhood. A case-control study in Italy. Haematologica 91 (8): 1096-9, 2006.
  65. Fink JC, Leisenring WM, Sullivan KM, et al.: Avascular necrosis following bone marrow transplantation: a case-control study. Bone 22 (1): 67-71, 1998.
  66. Relling MV, Yang W, Das S, et al.: Pharmacogenetic risk factors for osteonecrosis of the hip among children with leukemia. J Clin Oncol 22 (19): 3930-6, 2004.
  67. Mattano LA Jr, Sather HN, Trigg ME, et al.: Osteonecrosis as a complication of treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children: a report from the Children's Cancer Group. J Clin Oncol 18 (18): 3262-72, 2000.
  68. te Winkel ML, Pieters R, Hop WC, et al.: Prospective study on incidence, risk factors, and long-term outcome of osteonecrosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Clin Oncol 29 (31): 4143-50, 2011.
  69. Bovée JV: Multiple osteochondromas. Orphanet J Rare Dis 3: 3, 2008.
  70. Faraci M, Bagnasco F, Corti P, et al.: Osteochondroma after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood. An Italian study on behalf of the AIEOP-HSCT group. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 15 (10): 1271-6, 2009.
  71. Bordigoni P, Turello R, Clement L, et al.: Osteochondroma after pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: report of eight cases. Bone Marrow Transplant 29 (7): 611-4, 2002.
  72. Taitz J, Cohn RJ, White L, et al.: Osteochondroma after total body irradiation: an age-related complication. Pediatr Blood Cancer 42 (3): 225-9, 2004.

This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: 8/, 015
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Colorectal cancer cells
New! I AM Not Cancer Facebook Group
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Ovarian cancer illustration
Real Cancer Perspectives
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
what is your cancer risk
colorectal cancer treatment advances
breast cancer overview slideshow
prostate cancer overview
lung cancer overview slideshow
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
Actor Michael Douglas