Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started
My Medicine

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Late Effects of the Reproductive System


A French cohort study of 1,109 female survivors of childhood solid cancer identified the following as risk factors for nonsurgical menopause: exposure to and dose of alkylating agents, especially during adolescence; radiation dose to the ovaries; and oophorectomy. Women treated with alkylating agents after the onset of puberty, either alone (RR, 9; 95% CI, 2.7-28, P = .0003) or associated with even a low dose of radiation to the ovaries (RR, 29; 95% CI, 8-108, P < .0001), had the highest risk ratio for nonsurgical menopause. Exposure to unilateral oophorectomy was associated with a 7-year-earlier age at menopause. The overall rate of nonsurgical menopause by age 40 years was only 2.1% and substantially lower than the CCSS and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer cohort studies that include survivors of hematological malignancies.[50]


Fertility was evaluated among the 6,224 male CCSS participants aged 15 to 44 years who were not surgically sterile. They were less likely to sire a pregnancy than siblings (hazard ratio [HR] 0.56; 95% CI, 0.49-0.63). Among survivors, the HR of siring a pregnancy was decreased by radiation therapy greater than 750 cGy to the testes (HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02-0.64), higher summed alkylating agent dose score or treatment with cyclophosphamide (third tertile - HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31-0.57) or procarbazine (second tertile - HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26-0.87; third tertile - HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.07-0.41). The HR of siring a pregnancy was inversely related to the summed alkylating agent dose score (P -value for linear trend = <.001). Those who had a summed alkylating agent dose score of 2 (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.51-0.88; P = .004), 3 (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.36-0.65; P <.001), 4 (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.22-0.52; P <.001), 5 (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.22-0.66; P <.001), or 6 to 11 (HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.08-0.32; P <.001) were also less likely to ever sire a pregnancy compared with those who did not receive any alkylating agents. Compared with siblings, the HR for ever siring a pregnancy for survivors who had an alkylating agent dose score of 0 and a hypothalamic/pituitary radiation dose of 0 cGy and a testes radiation dose of 0 cGy was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.73-1.14; P = .41).[51]

1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Colorectal cancer cells
New! I AM Not Cancer Facebook Group
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Ovarian cancer illustration
Real Cancer Perspectives
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
what is your cancer risk
colorectal cancer treatment advances
breast cancer overview slideshow
prostate cancer overview
lung cancer overview slideshow
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
Actor Michael Douglas