Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started
My Medicine

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Late Effects of the Respiratory System

Table 14. Pulmonary Late Effects

Predisposing Therapy Pulmonary Effects Health Screening/Interventions
DLCO = diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; GVHD = graft-versus-host disease.
Busulfan; carmustine (BCNU)/lomustine (CCNU); bleomycin; radiation impacting lungs; surgery impacting pulmonary function (lobectomy, metastasectomy, wedge resection) Subclinical pulmonary dysfunction; interstitial pneumonitis; pulmonary fibrosis; restrictive lung disease; obstructive lung disease History: cough, shortness of breath, dyspnea on exertion, wheezing
Pulmonary exam
Pulmonary function tests (including DLCO and spirometry)
Chest x-ray
Counsel regarding tobacco avoidance/smoking cessation
In patients with abnormal pulmonary function tests and/or chest x-ray, consider repeat evaluation before general anesthesia
Pulmonary consultation for patients with symptomatic pulmonary dysfunction
Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations
Hematopoietic cell transplantation with any history of chronic GVHD Pulmonary toxicity (bronchiolitis obliterans, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis) History: cough, shortness of breath, dyspnea on exertion, wheezing
Pulmonary exam
Pulmonary function tests (including DLCO and spirometry)
Chest x-ray
Counsel regarding tobacco avoidance/smoking cessation
In patients with abnormal pulmonary function tests and/or chest x-ray, consider repeat evaluation before general anesthesia
Pulmonary consultation for patients with symptomatic pulmonary dysfunction
Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations

Refer to the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers for respiratory late effects information including risk factors, evaluation, and health counseling.


  1. Huang TT, Hudson MM, Stokes DC, et al.: Pulmonary outcomes in survivors of childhood cancer: a systematic review. Chest 140 (4): 881-901, 2011.
  2. Motosue MS, Zhu L, Srivastava K, et al.: Pulmonary function after whole lung irradiation in pediatric patients with solid malignancies. Cancer 118 (5): 1450-6, 2012.
  3. McDonald S, Rubin P, Maasilta P: Response of normal lung to irradiation. Tolerance doses/tolerance volumes in pulmonary radiation syndromes. Front Radiat Ther Oncol 23: 255-76; discussion 299-301, 1989.
  4. McDonald S, Rubin P, Phillips TL, et al.: Injury to the lung from cancer therapy: clinical syndromes, measurable endpoints, and potential scoring systems. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 31 (5): 1187-203, 1995.
  5. Kreisman H, Wolkove N: Pulmonary toxicity of antineoplastic therapy. Semin Oncol 19 (5): 508-20, 1992.
  6. Bossi G, Cerveri I, Volpini E, et al.: Long-term pulmonary sequelae after treatment of childhood Hodgkin's disease. Ann Oncol 8 (Suppl 1): 19-24, 1997.
  7. Fryer CJ, Hutchinson RJ, Krailo M, et al.: Efficacy and toxicity of 12 courses of ABVD chemotherapy followed by low-dose regional radiation in advanced Hodgkin's disease in children: a report from the Children's Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol 8 (12): 1971-80, 1990.
  8. Hudson MM, Greenwald C, Thompson E, et al.: Efficacy and toxicity of multiagent chemotherapy and low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in children and adolescents with Hodgkin's disease. J Clin Oncol 11 (1): 100-8, 1993.
  9. Hunger SP, Link MP, Donaldson SS: ABVD/MOPP and low-dose involved-field radiotherapy in pediatric Hodgkin's disease: the Stanford experience. J Clin Oncol 12 (10): 2160-6, 1994.
  10. Marina NM, Greenwald CA, Fairclough DL, et al.: Serial pulmonary function studies in children treated for newly diagnosed Hodgkin's disease with mantle radiotherapy plus cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and procarbazine alternating with cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine. Cancer 75 (7): 1706-11, 1995.
  11. Polliack A: Late therapy-induced cardiac and pulmonary complications in cured patients with Hodgkin's disease treated with conventional combination chemo-radiotherapy. Leuk Lymphoma 15 (Suppl 1): 7-10, 1995.
  12. Cerveri I, Fulgoni P, Giorgiani G, et al.: Lung function abnormalities after bone marrow transplantation in children: has the trend recently changed? Chest 120 (6): 1900-6, 2001.
  13. Kaplan EB, Wodell RA, Wilmott RW, et al.: Late effects of bone marrow transplantation on pulmonary function in children. Bone Marrow Transplant 14 (4): 613-21, 1994.
  14. Leiper AD: Non-endocrine late complications of bone marrow transplantation in childhood: part II. Br J Haematol 118 (1): 23-43, 2002.
  15. Marras TK, Chan CK, Lipton JH, et al.: Long-term pulmonary function abnormalities and survival after allogeneic marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 33 (5): 509-17, 2004.
  16. Nenadov Beck M, Meresse V, Hartmann O, et al.: Long-term pulmonary sequelae after autologous bone marrow transplantation in children without total body irradiation. Bone Marrow Transplant 16 (6): 771-5, 1995.
  17. Nysom K, Holm K, Hesse B, et al.: Lung function after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for leukaemia or lymphoma. Arch Dis Child 74 (5): 432-6, 1996.
  18. Inaba H, Yang J, Pan J, et al.: Pulmonary dysfunction in survivors of childhood hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cancer 116 (8): 2020-30, 2010.
  19. Frisk P, Arvidson J, Hedenström H: A longitudinal study of pulmonary function after stem cell transplantation, from childhood to young adulthood. Pediatr Blood Cancer 58 (5): 775-9, 2012.
  20. Schultz KR, Green GJ, Wensley D, et al.: Obstructive lung disease in children after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Blood 84 (9): 3212-20, 1994.
  21. Uderzo C, Pillon M, Corti P, et al.: Impact of cumulative anthracycline dose, preparative regimen and chronic graft-versus-host disease on pulmonary and cardiac function in children 5 years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a prospective evaluation on behalf of the EBMT Pediatric Diseases and Late Effects Working Parties. Bone Marrow Transplant 39 (11): 667-75, 2007.
  22. Yoshihara S, Yanik G, Cooke KR, et al.: Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), and other late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 13 (7): 749-59, 2007.
  23. Kreisel D, Krupnick AS, Huddleston CB: Outcomes and late complications after pulmonary resections in the pediatric population. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 16 (3): 215-9, 2004.
  24. Mertens AC, Yasui Y, Liu Y, et al.: Pulmonary complications in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer 95 (11): 2431-41, 2002.

This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: 8/, 015
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
1 | 2 | 3
1 | 2 | 3
Next Article:

Today on WebMD

Colorectal cancer cells
New! I AM Not Cancer Facebook Group
Lung cancer xray
See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
sauteed cherry tomatoes
Fight cancer one plate at a time.
Ovarian cancer illustration
Real Cancer Perspectives
Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
what is your cancer risk
colorectal cancer treatment advances
breast cancer overview slideshow
prostate cancer overview
lung cancer overview slideshow
ovarian cancer overview slideshow
Actor Michael Douglas