Incidence and Mortality
Estimated new cases and deaths from anal, anal canal, and anorectal cancer in the United States in 2013:
New cases: 7,060.
Anal cancer is usually curable. The three major prognostic factors are site (anal canal vs. perianal skin), size (primary tumors <2 cm in size have better prognoses), and nodal status.
Anal cancer is an uncommon malignancy and accounts for only a small percentage (4%) of all cancers of the lower alimentary tract...
The risk also is increased in females, in survivors who were a young age at the time of treatment, in survivors who had a higher radiation dose, and as the time since diagnosis and treatment gets longer.
Late effects that affect the thyroid may cause certain health problems.
Thyroid late effects include the following:
Hypothyroidism (not enough thyroid hormone): The most common thyroid late effect. It usually occurs 3 to 5 years after treatment ends but may occur later. It is more common in girls than boys.
Hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone): It usually occurs 3 to 5 years after treatment ends.
Lumps in the thyroid: Usually occur 10 years after treatment ends. It is more common in girls than boys.
Signs of thyroid late effects depend on whether there is too little or too much thyroid hormone in the body.
These symptoms may be caused by thyroid late effects: