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Endocrine System

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    Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Talk to your child's doctor if your child has any of these problems.

    Certain tests and procedures are used to detect (find) and diagnose health problems in the thyroid.

    These and other tests and procedures may be used to detect or diagnose thyroid late effects:

    • Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
    • Bloodhormone studies: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain hormones released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it. The blood may be checked for abnormal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or free thyroxine (T4).
    • Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later. This procedure can show the size of the thyroid and whether there are nodules (lumps) on the thyroid.

    Talk to your child's doctor about whether your child needs to have tests and procedures to check for signs of thyroid late effects. If tests are needed, find out how often they should be done.

    Pituitary gland

    Neuroendocrine late effects may be caused after treatment for certain childhood cancers.

    The neuroendocrine system is the nervous system and the endocrine system working together. Certain nerves (the nervous system) cause hormones to be released (the endocrine system) into the blood. Treatment for these and other childhood cancers may cause neuroendocrine late effects:

    • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
    • Brain and spinal cord tumors.
    • Nasopharyngeal cancer.
    • Cancers treated with total-body irradiation (TBI) before a stem cell transplant.

    Radiation therapy to the hypothalamus increases the risk of neuroendocrine system late effects.

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