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Cancer Health Center

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Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Reproductive System


The risk may also be greater in survivors who were age 13 to 20 years at the time of treatment.

Late effects that affect the ovaries may cause certain health problems.

Ovarian late effects include the following:

  • Early menopause, especially in women who had their ovaries removed or were treated with both an alkylating agent and radiation therapy to the abdomen.
  • Changes in menstrual periods.
  • Infertility (inability to conceive a child).
  • Puberty does not begin.

Possible signs and symptoms of ovarian late effects include irregular or absent menstrual periods and hot flashes.

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by ovarian late effects or by other conditions:

Talk to your child's doctor if your child has any of these problems.

Fertility and reproduction

Treatment for cancer may cause infertility in childhood cancer survivors.

The risk of infertility increases after treatment with the following:

  • In boys, treatment with radiation therapy to the testicles.
  • In girls, treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis, including the ovaries and uterus.
  • Radiation therapy to brain and spinal cord or lower back.
  • Total-body irradiation (TBI) before a stem cell transplant.
  • Chemotherapy with alkylating agents, such as cyclophosphamide and procarbazine.
  • Surgery, such as the removal of a testicle or an ovary or lymph nodes in the abdomen.

Childhood cancer survivors may have late effects that affect pregnancy.

Late effects on pregnancy include increased risk of the following:

There are methods that may be used to help childhood cancer survivors have children.

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