Treatment Options for Stages I and II
Complete surgical resection of primary tumor followed by chemotherapy.In a randomized trial, seven of eight patients with stage I hepatocellular carcinoma survived disease free after adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In a survey of childhood liver tumors treated prior to the consistent use of chemotherapy, only 12 of 33 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who had complete excision of the tumor survived. This suggests that adjuvant chemotherapy...
Sometimes there are no symptoms in the early stages. Symptoms may appear as damage to the kidney continues over time. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Talk to your child's doctor if your child has any of these problems.
Certain tests and procedures are used to detect (find) and diagnose health problems in the kidney.
These and other tests and procedures may be used to detect or diagnose kidney late effects:
Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
Blood chemistry study: A procedure in which a blood sample is checked to measure the amounts of certain substances, such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium, released into the blood by organs and tissues in the body. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance may be a sign of kidney disease.
Complete blood count (CBC): A procedure in which a sample of blood is drawn and checked for the following:
The number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
The amount of hemoglobin (the protein that carries oxygen) in the red blood cells.
The portion of the blood sample made up of red blood cells.
Urinalysis: A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells.
Twenty-four-hour urine test: A test in which urine is collected for 24 hours to measure the amounts of certain substances. An unusual (higher or lower than normal) amount of a substance, such as protein, urea nitrogen, or creatinine, can be a sign of disease in the organ or tissue that makes it.
Ultrasound exam: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs, such as the kidney, and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later.