Caregivers have their own emotional responses to patients' diagnoses and prognoses, and they may require coaching and emotional support separate from that offered to patients.[1,2] Caregiver roles and caregiver burden are profoundly affected by a patient's prognosis, stage of illness, and goals of care. The existing body of work on family caregivers of patients with cancer focuses primarily on a caregiver's adjustment during the acute survivorship phase, from the time of diagnosis to 2 years postdiagnosis...
Radiation therapy can stop or slow the growth of bone. The type of bone and joint late effect depends on the part of the body that received radiation therapy. Radiation therapy may cause any of the following:
Changes in the way the face or skull form, especially when treatment is given to children before age 5 or when high-dose radiation is given.
Amputation or limb-sparing surgery to remove the cancer and prevent it from coming back may cause late effects depending on where the tumor was, age of the patient, and type of surgery. Health problems after amputation or limb-sparing surgery may include:
Having problems with activities of daily living.
Not being able to be as active as normal.
Chronic pain or infection.
Problems with the way prosthetics fit or work.
One arm or leg is shorter than the other.
Studies show no difference in quality of life in childhood cancer survivors who had amputation compared to those who had limb-sparing surgery.
Chemotherapy and other drug therapy
Risk may be increased in childhood cancer survivors who receive anticancer therapy that includes methotrexate or corticosteroids or glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone. Drug therapy may cause any of the following:
Osteoporosis (weak or thin bones that can break easily).
Osteonecrosis (one or more parts of a bone dies from a lack of blood flow), especially in the hip or knee.