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Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Reproductive System


Possible signs of ovarian late effects include irregular or absent menstrual periods.

These symptoms may be caused by ovarian late effects:

Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Talk to your child's doctor if your child has any of these problems.

Fertility and reproduction

Treatment for cancer may cause infertility in childhood cancer survivors.

The risk of infertility increases after treatment with the following:

  • In boys, treatment with radiation therapy to the testicles.
  • In girls, treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis, including the ovaries and uterus.
  • Radiation therapy to brain and spinal cord or lower back.
  • Total-body irradiation (TBI) before a stem cell transplant.
  • Chemotherapy with alkylating agents, such as cyclophosphamide and procarbazine.
  • Surgery, such as the removal of a testicle or an ovary or lymph nodes in the abdomen.

Childhood cancer survivors may have late effects that affect pregnancy.

Late effects on pregnancy include increased risk of the following:

There are methods that may be used to help childhood cancer survivors have children.

The following methods may be used so that childhood cancer survivors can have children:

  • Freezing the eggs or sperm before cancer treatment in patients who have reached puberty.
  • Testicular sperm extraction (the removal of a small amount of tissue containing sperm from the testicle).
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (an egg is fertilized with one sperm that is injected into the egg outside the body).
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) (eggs and sperm are placed together in a container, giving the sperm the chance to enter an egg).

Children of childhood cancer survivors are not affected by the parent's previous treatment for cancer.


WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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