There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms. These diseases are all associated with a monoclonal (or myeloma) protein (M protein). They include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), isolated plasmacytoma of the bone, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and multiple myeloma.
Incidence and Mortality
Estimated new cases and deaths from multiple myeloma in the United States in 2012:
New cases: 21,700.
Clinical Presentation and Evaluation
Risk may also be increased in childhood cancer survivors who were young at the time of treatment (the younger the child, the greater the risk) or received radiation therapy to the brain and chemotherapy at the same time.
Hearing loss is the most common sign of hearing late effects.
These symptoms may be caused by hearing late effects:
Ringing in the ears.
Too much hardened wax in the ear.
Hearing loss may occur slowly over time or may occur several months or years after treatment ends. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. Talk to your child's doctor if your child has any of these problems.
Certain tests and procedures are used to detect (find) and diagnose health problems in the ear and hearing problems.
These and other tests and procedures may be used to detect or diagnose hearing late effects:
Physical exam and history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
Otoscopic exam: An exam of the ear. An otoscope is used to look at the ear canal and the eardrum to check for signs of infection or hearing loss. Sometimes the otoscope has a plastic bulb that is squeezed to release a small puff air into the ear canal. In a healthy ear, the eardrum will move. If there is fluid behind the eardrum, it will not move.
Hearing test: A hearing test can be done in different ways depending on the child's age. The test is done to check if the child can hear soft and loud sounds and low- and high-pitched sounds. Each ear is checked separately. The child may also be asked if he or she can hear the high-pitched hum of a tuning fork when it is placed behind the ear or on the forehead.
Talk to your child's doctor about whether your child needs to have tests and procedures to check for signs of hearing late effects. If tests are needed, find out how often they should be done.