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Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia


Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation

The following are examples of national and/or institutional clinical trials that are currently being conducted for patients with refractory CML.

  • In an attempt to reduce the adverse side effects of myeloablative HSCT, investigators are testing reduced-intensity conditioning HSCT.[40]
  • Second generation BCR-ABL inhibitors (dasatinib and nilotinib) have been approved by FDA for treatment of imatinib-refractory CML in adults.[20,21] These agents are active against many BCR-ABL mutants that confer resistance to imatinib mesylate, although the agents are ineffective in patients with the T315I BCR-ABL mutation. Dasatinib has been studied in children and tolerance is similar to that observed in adults. A pharmacokinetic study of nilotinib in children with BCR-ABL-positive CML or ALL is ongoing (NCT01077544).

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with childhood chronic myelogenous leukemia. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.


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  9. Druker BJ: Translation of the Philadelphia chromosome into therapy for CML. Blood 112 (13): 4808-17, 2008.
  10. Kantarjian H, Sawyers C, Hochhaus A, et al.: Hematologic and cytogenetic responses to imatinib mesylate in chronic myelogenous leukemia. N Engl J Med 346 (9): 645-52, 2002.
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  12. Druker BJ, Guilhot F, O'Brien SG, et al.: Five-year follow-up of patients receiving imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med 355 (23): 2408-17, 2006.
  13. Saussele S, Lauseker M, Gratwohl A, et al.: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo SCT) for chronic myeloid leukemia in the imatinib era: evaluation of its impact within a subgroup of the randomized German CML Study IV. Blood 115 (10): 1880-5, 2010.
  14. Hughes TP, Hochhaus A, Branford S, et al.: Long-term prognostic significance of early molecular response to imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia: an analysis from the International Randomized Study of Interferon and STI571 (IRIS). Blood 116 (19): 3758-65, 2010.
  15. Kantarjian H, Cortes J: Considerations in the management of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. J Clin Oncol 29 (12): 1512-6, 2011.
  16. Soverini S, Hochhaus A, Nicolini FE, et al.: BCR-ABL kinase domain mutation analysis in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of European LeukemiaNet. Blood 118 (5): 1208-15, 2011.
  17. Hazarika M, Jiang X, Liu Q, et al.: Tasigna for chronic and accelerated phase Philadelphia chromosome--positive chronic myelogenous leukemia resistant to or intolerant of imatinib. Clin Cancer Res 14 (17): 5325-31, 2008.
  18. Brave M, Goodman V, Kaminskas E, et al.: Sprycel for chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia resistant to or intolerant of imatinib mesylate. Clin Cancer Res 14 (2): 352-9, 2008.
  19. Ibrahim AR, Eliasson L, Apperley JF, et al.: Poor adherence is the main reason for loss of CCyR and imatinib failure for chronic myeloid leukemia patients on long-term therapy. Blood 117 (14): 3733-6, 2011.
  20. Kantarjian H, Shah NP, Hochhaus A, et al.: Dasatinib versus imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med 362 (24): 2260-70, 2010.
  21. Saglio G, Kim DW, Issaragrisil S, et al.: Nilotinib versus imatinib for newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia. N Engl J Med 362 (24): 2251-9, 2010.
  22. de Lavallade H, Apperley JF, Khorashad JS, et al.: Imatinib for newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: incidence of sustained responses in an intention-to-treat analysis. J Clin Oncol 26 (20): 3358-63, 2008.
  23. Branford S, Seymour JF, Grigg A, et al.: BCR-ABL messenger RNA levels continue to decline in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib for more than 5 years and approximately half of all first-line treated patients have stable undetectable BCR-ABL using strict sensitivity criteria. Clin Cancer Res 13 (23): 7080-5, 2007.
  24. Rousselot P, Huguet F, Rea D, et al.: Imatinib mesylate discontinuation in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in complete molecular remission for more than 2 years. Blood 109 (1): 58-60, 2007.
  25. Pulsipher MA: Treatment of CML in pediatric patients: should imatinib mesylate (STI-571, Gleevec) or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant be front-line therapy? Pediatr Blood Cancer 43 (5): 523-33, 2004.
  26. Handgretinger R, Kurtzberg J, Egeler RM: Indications and donor selections for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in children with hematologic malignancies. Pediatr Clin North Am 55 (1): 71-96, x, 2008.
  27. Mahon FX, Réa D, Guilhot J, et al.: Discontinuation of imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia who have maintained complete molecular remission for at least 2 years: the prospective, multicentre Stop Imatinib (STIM) trial. Lancet Oncol 11 (11): 1029-35, 2010.
  28. Champagne MA, Capdeville R, Krailo M, et al.: Imatinib mesylate (STI571) for treatment of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia: results from a Children's Oncology Group phase 1 study. Blood 104 (9): 2655-60, 2004.
  29. Millot F, Guilhot J, Nelken B, et al.: Imatinib mesylate is effective in children with chronic myelogenous leukemia in late chronic and advanced phase and in relapse after stem cell transplantation. Leukemia 20 (2): 187-92, 2006.
  30. Millot F, Baruchel A, Guilhot J, et al.: Imatinib is effective in children with previously untreated chronic myelogenous leukemia in early chronic phase: results of the French national phase IV trial. J Clin Oncol 29 (20): 2827-32, 2011.
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  35. le Coutre P, Ottmann OG, Giles F, et al.: Nilotinib (formerly AMN107), a highly selective BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is active in patients with imatinib-resistant or -intolerant accelerated-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood 111 (4): 1834-9, 2008.
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  37. Aplenc R, Blaney SM, Strauss LC, et al.: Pediatric phase I trial and pharmacokinetic study of dasatinib: a report from the children's oncology group phase I consortium. J Clin Oncol 29 (7): 839-44, 2011.
  38. Oehler VG, Gooley T, Snyder DS, et al.: The effects of imatinib mesylate treatment before allogeneic transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood 109 (4): 1782-9, 2007.
  39. Lee SJ, Kukreja M, Wang T, et al.: Impact of prior imatinib mesylate on the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood 112 (8): 3500-7, 2008.
  40. Burroughs L, Storb R: Low-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myeloid malignancies: separating graft-versus-leukemia effects from graft-versus-host disease. Curr Opin Hematol 12 (1): 45-54, 2005.

WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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