Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information
There are genetic risks associated with the development of AML. There is a high concordance rate of AML in identical twins, which is believed to be in large part a result of shared circulation and the inability of one twin to reject leukemic cells from the other twin during fetal development.[10,11,12] There is an estimated twofold to fourfold risk of fraternal twins both developing leukemia up to about age 6 years, after which the risk is not significantly greater than that of the general population.[13,14] The development of AML has also been associated with a variety of predisposition syndromes that result from chromosomal imbalances or instabilities, defects in DNA repair, altered cytokine receptor or signal transduction pathway activation, as well as altered protein synthesis. (Refer to the following list of inherited and acquired genetic syndromes associated with myeloid malignancies.)
Inherited and Acquired Genetic Syndromes Associated with Myeloid Malignancies
- Inherited syndromes
- Chromosomal imbalances:
- Down syndrome.
- Familial monosomy 7 syndrome.
- Chromosomal instability syndromes:
- Fanconi anemia.
- Dyskeratosis congenita.
- Bloom syndrome.
- Syndromes of growth and cell survival signaling pathway defects:
- Neurofibromatosis type 1 (particularly JMML development).
- Noonan syndrome (particularly JMML development).
- Severe congenital neutropenia (Kostmann syndrome).
- Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.
- Diamond-Blackfan anemia.
- Familial platelet disorder with a propensity to develop AML.
- Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia.
- CBL germline syndrome (particularly in JMML).
- Acquired syndromes
- Severe aplastic anemia.
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
- Amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia.
- Acquired monosomy 7.
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