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Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Patient Information [NCI] - Stages of Malignant Mesothelioma

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There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:

  • Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
  • Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
  • Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.

When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

The following stages are used for malignant mesothelioma:

Stage I (Localized)

Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB:

  • In stage IA, cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall and may also be found in the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs and/or the lining that covers the diaphragm. Cancer has not spread to the lining that covers the lung.
  • In stage IB, cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall and the lining that covers the lung. Cancer may also be found in the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs and/or the lining that covers the diaphragm.

Stage II (Advanced)

In stage II, cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall, the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs, the lining that covers the diaphragm, and the lining that covers the lung. Also, cancer has spread into one or both of the following:

  • Diaphragm muscle.
  • Lung.

Stage III (Advanced)

In stage III, either of the following is true:

Cancer is found in one side of the chest in the lining of the chest wall. Cancer may have spread to:

  • the lining of the chest cavity between the lungs;
  • the lining that covers the diaphragm;
  • the lining that covers the lung;
  • the diaphragm muscle;
  • the lung.
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