Milk Thistle (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Human / Clinical Studies
In a case series /phase I study, patients with HCV were treated with intravenous silibinin with and without PEG-interferon and ribavirin. In the case series, 16 HCV nonresponder patients were administered intravenous silibinin in a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Subjects then began treatment with oral silibinin in combination with PEG-interferon and ribavirin for 12 weeks. At the end of the study period, all patients were positive for HCV RNA, but 5 of 13 completed patients had reductions in HCV RNA. Significance was not reported. In the same study, the authors presented results of a phase I study in which 20 patients were administered 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, or 20 mg/kg of silibinin for 14 days in combination with PEG-interferon and ribavirin (initiated on day 8). A significant drop in HCV RNA was observed on day 7 in patients administered the 10 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg doses of silybinin. Further declines were observed in HCV RNA with administration of PEG-interferon and ribavirin. Except for mild gastroenteritis, intravenous silibinin monotherapy was well tolerated.
In patients with chronic liver disease, a randomized, placebo-controlled study found normalization of serum AST, ALT, and bilirubin levels after 1 month of treatment with silymarin (140 mg 3 times a day) in comparison to treatment with a placebo. In one of the largest observational studies involving 2,637 patients with chronic liver disease, 8-week treatment with 560 mg/day of silymarin resulted in reductions of serum AST, ALT, and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase ([GGT], a marker of bile duct disease) and a decrease in the frequency of palpable hepatomegaly.
Another published report describes the use of silybinin as the only effective antidote in patients with liver damage from Amanita phalloides (Fr.) Link poisoning. Patients were administered doses of 35 to 55 mg/kg body weight, with no reports of adverse events. A recent retrospective review of the treatment for Amanita phalloides poisoning suggests that silymarin continues to be a promising drug in the treatment of this mushroom poisoning. The beneficial effect of silymarin on liver histology suggests it has a role in the prevention of hepatitis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma; however, no clinical trials in humans have investigated these uses of silymarin.