Mistletoe Extracts (PDQ®): Complementary and alternative medicine - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Summary of the Evidence for Mistletoe Extracts
Mistletoe is one of the most widely studied complementary and alternative medicine therapies for cancer. In certain European countries, the preparations made from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) are among the most prescribed drugs offered to cancer patients. Mistletoe extracts have been evaluated in numerous clinical studies and improvements in survival, quality of life, and/or stimulation of the immune system have been frequently reported. However, most clinical studies conducted to date have had one or more major weaknesses that raise doubts about the reliability of the findings. In addition, no evidence exists to support the notion that stimulation of the immune system by mistletoe leads to an improved ability to fight cancer. Because all patients in the reported clinical studies appear to have been adults, no information is available about the use of mistletoe as a treatment for children with cancer. At present, there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of mistletoe as a treatment for people with cancer outside the context of well-designed clinical trials. Such trials will be valuable to determine more clearly whether mistletoe can be useful in the treatment of specific subsets of cancer patients.
Separate levels of evidence scores are assigned to qualifying human studies on the basis of statistical strength of the study design and scientific strength of the treatment outcomes (i.e., endpoints) measured. The resulting two scores are then combined to produce an overall score. For additional information about levels of evidence analysis, refer to Levels of Evidence for Human Studies of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
There are three main types of skin cancer:
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
BCC and SCC are the most common forms of skincancer and are collectively referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancers. This summary only covers the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Melanoma Treatment for more information.)
Incidence and Mortality
Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in the United...