Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Relapsed or Refractory Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Lack of response or progression after the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents is not considered relapsed or refractory myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
With the exception of the use of lenalidomide for low-risk patients with abnormalities of chromosome 5, there are no clinical trials informing the appropriate selection of current therapies for patients with specific subtypes of MDS. Patients who have ceased to respond or did not respond to one therapy are frequently offered another from the therapies described in the previous sections. Retrospective data suggest that patients who do not respond or have ceased responding to DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have a median survival of only 4 to 6 months.[1,2] Relapsed patients should be considered for enrollment in clinical trials.
Staging has an important role in determining the most effective treatment for soft tissue sarcoma. Clinical staging involves magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) of the primary tumor area and a chest CT to look for metastasis to the lung (the most common site of distant spread). An abdominal CT scan is done in the case of retroperitoneal sarcomas because the liver may be the site of initial clinical metastasis for these tumors.
The stage is determined by the size of the...
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with adult myelodysplastic syndromes. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Prébet T, Gore SD, Esterni B, et al.: Outcome of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome after azacitidine treatment failure. J Clin Oncol 29 (24): 3322-7, 2011.
Jabbour E, Garcia-Manero G, Batty N, et al.: Outcome of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome after failure of decitabine therapy. Cancer 116 (16): 3830-4, 2010.