Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)
Incidence and Mortality
Note: Estimated new cases and deaths from testicular cancer in the United States in 2011:
New cases: 8,290.
Treatment is the same as for nasopharyngeal cancers, primarily radiation therapy. (Refer to the Stage I Nasopharyngeal Cancer section in the PDQ summary on Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment for more information.)
For nasal cavity tumors (squamous cell carcinomas), treatment preferences are either surgery or radiation therapy with equal cure rates:
Surgery for tumors of the septum.
Radiation therapy for tumors of the lateral and superior walls.
Surgery plus radiation therapy for tumors of the septal and lateral walls.
For inverting papilloma:
Re-excision for surgery failures.
Radical surgery may eventually be necessary.
Radiation has been used successfully for surgical failures.
For melanomas and sarcomas:
Surgical excision if possible.
Combined surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are recommended for rhabdomyosarcoma.
For midline granuloma:
Radiation therapy to nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
For nasal vestibule tumors:
Surgery or radiation may be performed. If lesions are extremely small, surgery is preferred provided that no deformity is expected and a need for reconstruction is not anticipated. Radiation therapy is preferred for other small lesions.[6,7] Treatment of the ipsilateral neck should be considered.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage I paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Kraus DH, Sterman BM, Levine HL, et al.: Factors influencing survival in ethmoid sinus cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 118 (4): 367-72, 1992.
Shah JP: Surgery of the anterior skull base for malignant tumors. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 53 (3): 191-4, 1999.
Cantù G, Solero CL, Mariani L, et al.: Anterior craniofacial resection for malignant ethmoid tumors--a series of 91 patients. Head Neck 21 (3): 185-91, 1999.
Hawkins RB, Wynstra JH, Pilepich MV, et al.: Carcinoma of the nasal cavity--results of primary and adjuvant radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15 (5): 1129-33, 1988.
Ang KK, Jiang GL, Frankenthaler RA, et al.: Carcinomas of the nasal cavity. Radiother Oncol 24 (3): 163-8, 1992.
Levendag PC, Pomp J: Radiation therapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19 (6): 1363-7, 1990.
Wong CS, Cummings BJ: The place of radiation therapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule. A review. Acta Oncol 27 (3): 203-8, 1988.