Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Standard treatment options:
Selected patients with local recurrence may be retreated with moderate-dose external-beam radiation therapy using intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic radiation therapy, or intracavitary or interstitial radiation to the site of recurrence.[1,2,3]
In highly selected patients, surgical resection of locally recurrent lesions may be considered.
If a patient has metastatic disease or local recurrence that is no longer amenable to surgery or radiation therapy, chemotherapy should be considered.[4,5,6]
Additional Information about CAM Therapies
The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM).
The National Cancer Institute Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM).
CAM on PubMed, a special subset of the PubMed scientific literature database created through a partnership between NCCAM and the National Library of Medicine.
PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer DatabaseFull description of the NCI PDQ database.
Clinical trials evaluating chemotherapy should be considered.
Stereotactic radiation for locally recurrent disease or persistence.[7,8,9][Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv]
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Mendenhall WM, Werning JW, Pfister DG: Treatment of head and neck cancer. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 729-80.
Vikram B, Strong EW, Shah JP, et al.: Intraoperative radiotherapy in patients with recurrent head and neck cancer. Am J Surg 150 (4): 485-7, 1985.
Koutcher L, Lee N, Zelefsky M, et al.: Reirradiation of locally recurrent nasopharynx cancer with external beam radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76 (1): 130-7, 2010.
Al-Sarraf M: Head and neck cancer: chemotherapy concepts. Semin Oncol 15 (1): 70-85, 1988.
Jacobs C, Lyman G, Velez-García E, et al.: A phase III randomized study comparing cisplatin and fluorouracil as single agents and in combination for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 10 (2): 257-63, 1992.
Foo KF, Tan EH, Leong SS, et al.: Gemcitabine in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma of the undifferentiated type. Ann Oncol 13 (1): 150-6, 2002.
Chua DT, Sham JS, Kwong PW, et al.: Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for limited, locally persistent, and recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: efficacy and complications. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56 (1): 177-83, 2003.
Pai PC, Chuang CC, Wei KC, et al.: Stereotactic radiosurgery for locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Head Neck 24 (8): 748-53, 2002.
Xiao J, Xu G, Miao Y: Fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery for 50 patients with recurrent or residual nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 51 (1): 164-70, 2001.