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Stage Information

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Distant metastasis (M)

  • MX: Distant metastasis cannot be assessed
  • M0: No distant metastasis
  • M1: Distant metastasis

AJCC Stage Groupings

Stage 0

  • Tis, N0, M0

Stage I

  • T1, N0, M0

Stage IIA

  • T2a, N0, M0

Stage IIB

  • T1, N1, M0
  • T2, N1, M0
  • T2a, N1, M0
  • T2b, N0, M0
  • T2b, N1, M0

Stage III

  • T1, N2, M0
  • T2a, N2, M0
  • T2b, N2, M0
  • T3, N0, M0
  • T3, N1, M0
  • T3, N2, M0

Stage IVA

  • T4, N0, M0
  • T4, N1, M0
  • T4, N2, M0

Stage IVB

  • Any T, N3, M0

Stage IVC

  • Any T, any N, M1

Results of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (locoregional control and survival) are usually reported by T stage and N stage separately or by specific T and N subgroupings rather than by numerical stages I to IV. Outcome also depends on a variety of biologic and technical factors related to treatment.

References:

  1. Teo PM, Leung SF, Yu P, et al.: A comparison of Ho's, International Union Against Cancer, and American Joint Committee stage classifications for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer 67 (2): 434-9, 1991.
  2. Lee AW, Foo W, Law SC, et al.: Staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: from Ho's to the new UICC system. Int J Cancer 84 (2): 179-87, 1999.
  3. Mendenhall WM, Riggs CE Jr, Cassisi NJ: Treatment of head and neck cancers. In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds.: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, pp 662-732.
  4. Laramore GE, ed.: Radiation Therapy of Head and Neck Cancer. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
  5. Consensus conference. Magnetic resonance imaging. JAMA 259 (14): 2132-8, 1988.
  6. Liu FY, Chang JT, Wang HM, et al.: [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is more sensitive than skeletal scintigraphy for detecting bone metastasis in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma at initial staging. J Clin Oncol 24 (4): 599-604, 2006.
  7. Pharynx (including base of tongue, soft palate and uvula). In: American Joint Committee on Cancer.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2002, pp 31-46.
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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: March 12, 2007
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.

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