Distant metastasis (M)
- MX: Distant metastasis cannot be assessed
- M0: No distant metastasis
- M1: Distant metastasis
AJCC Stage Groupings
- T1, N1, M0
- T2, N1, M0
- T2a, N1, M0
- T2b, N0, M0
- T2b, N1, M0
- T1, N2, M0
- T2a, N2, M0
- T2b, N2, M0
- T3, N0, M0
- T3, N1, M0
- T3, N2, M0
- T4, N0, M0
- T4, N1, M0
- T4, N2, M0
Results of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (locoregional
control and survival) are usually reported by T stage and N stage separately or
by specific T and N subgroupings rather than by numerical stages I to IV.
Outcome also depends on a variety of biologic and technical factors related to
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- Lee AW, Foo W, Law SC, et al.: Staging of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: from Ho's to the new UICC system. Int J Cancer 84 (2): 179-87, 1999.
- Mendenhall WM, Riggs CE Jr, Cassisi NJ: Treatment of head and neck cancers. In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds.: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, pp 662-732.
- Laramore GE, ed.: Radiation Therapy of Head and Neck Cancer. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989.
- Consensus conference. Magnetic resonance imaging. JAMA 259 (14): 2132-8, 1988.
- Liu FY, Chang JT, Wang HM, et al.: [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is more sensitive than skeletal scintigraphy for detecting bone metastasis in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma at initial staging. J Clin Oncol 24 (4): 599-604, 2006.
- Pharynx (including base of tongue, soft palate and uvula). In: American Joint Committee on Cancer.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 6th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2002, pp 31-46.