Find Information About:

Drugs & Supplements

Get information and reviews on prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, vitamins, and supplements. Search by name or medical condition.

Pill Identifier

Pill Identifier

Having trouble identifying your pills?

Enter the shape, color, or imprint of your prescription or OTC drug. Our pill identification tool will display pictures that you can compare to your pill.

Get Started

My Medicine

Save your medicine, check interactions, sign up for FDA alerts, create family profiles and more.

Get Started

WebMD Health Experts and Community

Talk to health experts and other people like you in WebMD's Communities. It's a safe forum where you can create or participate in support groups and discussions about health topics that interest you.

  • Second Opinion

    Second Opinion

    Read expert perspectives on popular health topics.

  • Community


    Connect with people like you, and get expert guidance on living a healthy life.

Got a health question? Get answers provided by leading organizations, doctors, and experts.

Get Answers

Sign up to receive WebMD's award-winning content delivered to your inbox.

Sign Up

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Staging systems are all clinical staging and are based on the best possible estimate of the extent of disease before treatment.[1,2] Assessment of the primary tumor is based on inspection and palpation, and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation. The tumor must be confirmed histologically, and any other pathologic data obtained on biopsy may be included. Evaluation of the function of the cranial nerves is especially appropriate for tumors of the nasopharynx. The appropriate nodal drainage areas are examined by careful palpation and radiologic evaluation. The retropharyngeal lymph nodes are the first echelon of drainage.[3,4] Information from diagnostic imaging studies may be used in staging. Magnetic resonance imaging provides additional information to computed tomographic scanning in the evaluation of skull base invasion and intracranial spread.[5] Positron emission tomography scans combined with CT are helpful in radiation treatment planning for target delineation of the primary tumor, aids in detection of metastatic nodal involvement and metastatic spread such as lung or skeletal metastases in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal cancer.[6]

If a patient has a relapse, a complete reassessment must be done to select the appropriate additional therapy.

Definitions of TNM

The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has designated staging by TNM classification to define nasopharyngeal cancer.[7]

Table 1. Primary Tumor (T)a

a Reprinted with permission from AJCC: Pharynx. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 41-56.
b Parapharyngeal extension denotes posterolateral infiltration of tumor.
TXPrimary tumor cannot be assessed.
T0No evidence of primary tumor.
TisCarcinomain situ.
T1Tumor confined to the nasopharynx, or tumor extends to oropharynx and/or nasal cavity without parapharyngeal extension.b
T2Tumor with parapharyngeal extension.b
T3Tumor involves bony structures of skull base and/or paranasal sinuses.
T4Tumor with intracranial extension and/or involvement of cranial nerves, hypopharynx, orbit, or with extension to the infratemporal fossa/masticator space.
    Next Article:

    Today on WebMD

    Colorectal cancer cells
    New! I AM Not Cancer Facebook Group
    Lung cancer xray
    See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
    sauteed cherry tomatoes
    Fight cancer one plate at a time.
    Ovarian cancer illustration
    Real Cancer Perspectives
    Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
    what is your cancer risk
    colorectal cancer treatment advances
    breast cancer overview slideshow
    prostate cancer overview
    lung cancer overview slideshow
    ovarian cancer overview slideshow
    Actor Michael Douglas