Table 3. National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events: Nausea and Vomitinga continued...
Probiotics are nutritional supplements that contain a defined amount of viable microorganisms and, upon administration, confer a benefit to the patient. The use of probiotic functional foods (beneficial live microorganisms) to modify gut microflora has been suggested in clinical conditions associated with diarrhea, gut-barrier dysfunction, and inflammatory response. There are a vast number of different strains of probiotics; however, much of the clinical research has investigated the species belonging to the family of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Probiotics have been promoted for the following:[41,42,43,44,45,46]
- Prevention of antibiotic-induced diarrhea and rotavirus.
- Treatment or prevention of inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and gastroenteritis.
- Treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants.
The results of one study among adults with cancer have been published. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, 450 adults with cancer who were receiving radiation to the pelvic region were randomly assigned to receive the blend probiotic product VSL #3 or placebo during radiation therapy. The authors reported a decrease in the incidence and severity of diarrhea. No adverse events were reported.
Clinical trials for the following patients are under way:
- Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (NCT00319007).
- Patients undergoing donor stem cell transplantation for hematologic cancer or myelodysplastic syndrome (NCT00946283). This trial is now closed to accrual.
While the optimal dose of octreotide has not been determined, a panel of experts has recommended that complicated cases of diarrhea should be managed with intravenous (IV) fluids, octreotide at a starting dose of 100 to 150 μg subcutaneously (SC) 3 times a day or 25 to 50 μg/hour IV with a dose escalation to 500 μg 3 times a day, and administration of antibiotics. This regimen should be continued until the patient has been diarrhea free for 24 hours. Particularly when patients are receiving chemotherapy, additional evaluation should include stool workup (including blood, fecal leukocytes, C. difficile, Salmonella, E. coli, Campylobacter, and infectious colitis), complete blood count, and electrolyte profile. This workup and treatment should also be considered for patients who progress to grade 3 or 4 diarrhea while taking loperamide. The same panel suggests that severe radiation therapy–induced diarrhea may not require hospitalization (an alternative outpatient unit or intensive home care nursing may be able to provide the same level of care and monitoring) but the patient's constellation of symptoms should be considered to determine the appropriate workup and whether IV fluids or octreotide is indicated.