Assessment and Diagnosis
It is preferable at this time both to encourage the patient to seek out someone already known to him or her and to inform him or her of other resources in the community. Particularly for patients who have completed cancer treatment and who have manageable physical symptoms, higher perceived availability of social support has been associated with fewer depressive symptoms. In some instances, referral to a clergy person or therapist may also be appropriate. Most therapists can address general issues of grief or fears about death; some will specialize in clinical health psychology, medical social work, or even working primarily with cancer patients. For the hesitant patient, suggesting multiple resources will increase the likelihood that some assistance will be sought. For other patients, a formal direct referral may be appropriate.
Evaluation of depression in people with cancer should include careful assessment of symptoms, treatment effects, laboratory data results, physical status, and mental status. Although the etiology of depression is largely unknown, many risk factors for depression are known (see list below). Limited data suggest that depressive symptomatology in cancer patients undergoing cytokine therapy with interferon-alfa and interleukin-2 may be mediated by changes in availability of neurotransmitter precursors. For patients with head and neck cancer treated with curative intent, eight pretreatment variables (tumor stage, sex, depressive symptoms, openness to discuss cancer in the family, perceived available support, received emotional support, tumor-related symptoms, and size of the informal social network) can be used to predict which patients are likely to become depressed up to 3 years after treatment.[4,5] A prospective study of terminally ill Japanese patients who were assessed for psychiatric illness by structured clinical interview at the time of registration (baseline) and again at admission to a palliative care unit (follow-up) found that 5 (42%) of the 12 patients diagnosed with adjustment disorder at baseline progressed to major depression at follow-up. Only the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was significantly predictive of psychiatric diagnoses at follow-up. Heightened awareness of this facilitates early diagnosis and the use of appropriate interventions. In the medically ill, early manifestations of delirium may be mistaken for anxiety or depression. These disorders should be considered among the differential diagnoses in individuals who present with depressive symptoms.