When diagnosed in the first 7 months of life, the 5-year event-free survival rate is 94% and the overall survival rate is 96%. In a report from the United Kingdom of 50 children with mesoblastic nephroma studied on clinical trials and 80 cases from the national registry in the same time period, there were no deaths.
A prospective clinical trial that enrolled 50 patients confirmed that complete surgical resection, which includes the entire capsule, is adequate therapy for most patients with mesoblastic nephroma. In this study, only 2 of 50 patients died. Patients were at increased risk for local and eventually metastatic recurrence if there was stage III (incomplete resection and/or histologically positive resection margin), cellular subtype, and aged 3 months or older at diagnosis. Because of the small numbers of patients and the overlapping incidence of these characteristics (5 of 50 patients), the significance of the individual characteristics could not be discriminated. Adjuvant chemotherapy has been recommended for patients who share these three characteristics, though the benefit of adjuvant therapy will remain unproven with such a low incidence of disease. Although incompletely resected, stage III infants younger than 2 months may not need chemotherapy.
Thymomas and thymic carcinomas are epithelial tumors of the thymus. The term, thymoma, is customarily used to describe neoplasms that show no overt atypia of the epithelial component. A thymic epithelial tumor that exhibits clear-cut cytologic atypia and histologic features no longer specific to the thymus is known as a thymic carcinoma (also known as type C thymoma).
Incidence and mortality
Invasive thymomas and thymic carcinomas are relatively rare tumors, which...
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with congenital mesoblastic nephroma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Grundy P, Graf N, et al.: Characteristics and survival of 750 children diagnosed with a renal tumor in the first seven months of life: A collaborative study by the SIOP/GPOH/SFOP, NWTSG, and UKCCSG Wilms tumor study groups. Pediatr Blood Cancer 50 (6): 1130-4, 2008.
England RJ, Haider N, Vujanic GM, et al.: Mesoblastic nephroma: a report of the United Kingdom Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG). Pediatr Blood Cancer 56 (5): 744-8, 2011.
Furtwaengler R, Reinhard H, Leuschner I, et al.: Mesoblastic nephroma--a report from the Gesellschaft fur Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie (GPOH). Cancer 106 (10): 2275-83, 2006.
WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute
February 25, 2014
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