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Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®): Supportive care - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Relapse and Second Malignancy

Gingival infiltrates, oral infection, and/or bleeding disproportionate to local etiology can indicate possible relapsed disease, especially in patients treated for leukemias or lymphomas. Additionally, localized oral plasmacytomas have been observed in patients relapsing early post–autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma. Painless unilateral lymphadenopathy can also represent relapse in patients with previously treated lymphoma. Lymphoproliferative diseases occurring as second primary malignancies posttransplant must be considered for soft tissue masses and lymphadenopathy noted in transplant recipients.

Incidence of second malignancy steadily increases as cancer patients survive longer posttransplant. Previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation therapy and alterations in immune function, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and GVHD therapy collectively contribute to risk of second malignancy. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequently occurring secondary oral malignancy in transplant patients, with the lips and tongue being the most frequently reported sites.

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Note: Separate PDQ summaries on Endometrial Cancer Screening; Endometrial Cancer Treatment; and Uterine Sarcoma Treatment are also available. Intervention Associated With Decreased Risk Oral contraceptives Based on solid evidence, at least 1 year's use of oral contraceptives containing estrogen and progesterone decreases endometrial cancer risk, proportionate to duration of use. This benefit lasts at least 15 years after cessation.[1,2] Magnitude of Effect: Use of oral contraceptives...

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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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