Skip to content

Cancer Health Center

Font Size

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Incidence and Mortality

Estimated new cases and deaths from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in the United States in 2013:[1]

Recommended Related to Cancer

General Information About Skin Cancer

There are three main types of skin cancer: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Melanoma. BCC and SCC are the most common forms of skin cancer and are collectively referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancers. This summary only covers the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Melanoma Treatment for more information.) Incidence and Mortality Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in the United States...

Read the General Information About Skin Cancer article > >

  • New cases: 5,920.
  • Deaths: 610.

CML is one of a group of diseases called the myeloproliferative disorders. Other related entities include the following:

(Refer to the PDQ summary on Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders Treatment for more information.)

CML is a clonal disorder that is usually easily diagnosed because the leukemic cells of more than 95% of patients have a distinctive cytogenetic abnormality, the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1).[2,3] The Ph1 results from a reciprocal translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22 and is demonstrable in all hematopoietic precursors.[4] This translocation results in the transfer of the Abelson (ABL) on chromosome 9 oncogene to an area of chromosome 22 termed the breakpoint cluster region (BCR).[4] This, in turn, results in a fused BCR/ABL gene and in the production of an abnormal tyrosine kinase protein that causes the disordered myelopoiesis found in CML. Furthermore, these molecular techniques can now be used to supplement cytogenetic studies to detect the presence of the 9;22 translocation in patients without a visible Ph1 (Ph1-negative).

Ph1-negative CML is a poorly defined entity that is less clearly distinguished from other myeloproliferative syndromes. Patients with Ph1-negative CML generally have a poorer response to treatment and shorter survival than Ph1-positive patients.[5] Ph1-negative patients who have BCR/ABL gene rearrangement detectable by Southern blot analysis, however, have prognoses equivalent to Ph1-positive patients.[6,7] A small subset of patients have BCR/ABL detectable only by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), which is the most sensitive technique currently available. Patients with RT–PCR evidence of the BCR/ABL fusion gene appear clinically and prognostically identical to patients with a classic Ph1; however, patients who are BCR/ABL-negative by RT–PCR have a clinical course more consistent with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, which is a distinct clinical entity related to myelodysplastic syndrome.[6,8,9] Fluorescent in situ hybridization of the BCR/ABL translocation can be performed on the bone marrow aspirate or on the peripheral blood of patients with CML.[10]

    1|2
    Next Article:

    Today on WebMD

    Colorectal cancer cells
    A common one in both men and women.
    Lung cancer xray
    See it in pictures, plus read the facts.
     
    sauteed cherry tomatoes
    Fight cancer one plate at a time.
    Ovarian cancer illustration
    Real Cancer Perspectives
     
    Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
    Blog
    what is your cancer risk
    HEALTH CHECK
     
    colorectal cancer treatment advances
    Video
    breast cancer overview slideshow
    SLIDESHOW
     
    prostate cancer overview
    SLIDESHOW
    lung cancer overview slideshow
    SLIDESHOW
     
    ovarian cancer overview slideshow
    SLIDESHOW
    Actor Michael Douglas
    Article