Esthesioneuroblastoma (olfactoryneuroblastoma) is a very rare tumor that begins in the olfactory bulb in the brain. The olfactory bulb connects to the nerve that is important to the sense of smell.
Most children have a tumor in the nose or throat at the time of diagnosis. The tumor may spread into the bone around the eyes, sinuses, and the front part of the brain. The disease rarely spreads to other parts of the body. Esthesioneuroblastoma is more common in boys and usually appears during the teen years.
Esthesioneuroblastoma may cause any of the following signs and symptoms. Check with your doctor if any of the following problems occur:
- Blocked nose.
- Loss of the sense of smell.
- Frequent sinusinfections.
Other conditions that are not esthesioneuroblastoma may cause these same symptoms.
The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on whether the cancer is only in the nose or if it has spread to nearby lymph nodes or to other parts of the body.
Treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma in children may include the following:
- Surgery and radiation therapy. Newer treatments include sinus surgery done through an endoscope, radiosurgery, or proton beam radiation therapy.
- Chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy followed by surgery.
- Surgery followed by chemotherapy.
Thyroidtumors form in the tissues of the thyroid gland, which is a butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the throat near the windpipe. The thyroid gland makes important hormones that help control growth, heart rate, body temperature, and how quickly food is changed into energy.
Most childhood thyroid tumors occur in girls and children aged 15 to 19 years. Thyroid tumors may be adenomas (noncancer) or carcinomas (cancer). Adenomas can grow very large and sometimes make hormones. Adenomas may become malignant (cancer) and spread to the lungs or lymph nodes in the neck. Thyroid cancer usually grows and spreads slowly.
Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Diagnostic and Staging Tests
The risk of thyroid cancer is increased by being exposed to radiation and by certain geneticsyndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A syndrome or multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2B syndrome.
Thyroid tumors may cause any of the following symptoms. Check with your doctor if any of the following problems occur:
- A lump in the neck.
- Trouble swallowing.
- Hoarseness or a change in the voice.
Other conditions that are not thyroid tumors may cause these same symptoms.
Tests that examine the thyroid are used to diagnose and stage thyroid tumors. They may include:
- Physical exam and history.
- Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy.
- Open biopsy or surgery to remove all or part of the thyroid.
See the General Information section for a description of these tests and procedures.
Other tests used to diagnose and stage thyroid tumors include the following:
Ultrasound: A procedure in which high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram. The picture can be printed to be looked at later. This procedure can show the size of a thyroid tumor and whether it is solid or a fluid-filled cyst. Ultrasound may be used to guide a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy.
- Thyroid function test: The blood is checked for abnormal levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH is made by the pituitary gland in the brain. It stimulates the release of thyroid hormone and controls how fast follicular thyroid cells grow. The blood may also be checked for high levels of the hormone calcitonin.
- Thyroglobulin test: The blood is checked for the amount of thyroglobulin, a protein made by the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin levels are low or absent with normal thyroid function but may be higher with thyroid cancer or other conditions.