Skip to content

    Cancer Health Center

    Font Size

    Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Table 1. The Ten Most Common Sites for Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC), (SEER 1973-2006)a continued...

    Using the SEER Program registry MCC staging system adopted in 1973, MCC survival data (1973-2006) by stage is summarized below:[15]
    Figure 3. Relative ten-year survival rates for Merkel Cell Carcinoma by stage (SEER 1973-2006). Albores-Saavedra J et al: Merkel cell carcinoma demographics, morphology, and survival based on 3,870 cases: A population-based study. J Cutan Pathol. Reprinted with permission © 2009. Published by Wiley-Blackwell. All rights reserved.


    1. Toker C: Trabecular carcinoma of the skin. Arch Dermatol 105 (1): 107-10, 1972.
    2. Schwartz RA, Lambert WC: The Merkel cell carcinoma: a 50-year retrospect. J Surg Oncol 89 (1): 5, 2005.
    3. Nghiem P, McKee PH, Haynes HA: Merkel cell (cutaneous neuroendocrine) carcinoma. In: Sober AJ, Haluska FG, eds.: Skin Cancer. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker Inc., 2001, pp 127-141.
    4. Nghiem P, James N: Merkel cell carcinoma. In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, et al., eds.: Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill , 2008, pp 1087-94.
    5. Eng TY, Boersma MG, Fuller CD, et al.: A comprehensive review of the treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol 30 (6): 624-36, 2007.
    6. Medina-Franco H, Urist MM, Fiveash J, et al.: Multimodality treatment of Merkel cell carcinoma: case series and literature review of 1024 cases. Ann Surg Oncol 8 (3): 204-8, 2001.
    7. Busse PM, Clark JR, Muse VV, et al.: Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 19-2008. A 63-year-old HIV-positive man with cutaneous Merkel-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med 358 (25): 2717-23, 2008.
    8. Rockville Merkel Cell Carcinoma Group.: Merkel cell carcinoma: recent progress and current priorities on etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical management. J Clin Oncol 27 (24): 4021-6, 2009.
    9. Calder KB, Smoller BR: New insights into merkel cell carcinoma. Adv Anat Pathol 17 (3): 155-61, 2010.
    10. Hodgson NC: Merkel cell carcinoma: changing incidence trends. J Surg Oncol 89 (1): 1-4, 2005.
    11. Agelli M, Clegg LX: Epidemiology of primary Merkel cell carcinoma in the United States. J Am Acad Dermatol 49 (5): 832-41, 2003.
    12. Young JL, Ward KC, Ries LAG: Cancer of rare sites. In: Ries LAG, Young JL, Keel GE, et al., eds.: SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U. S. SEER Program, 1988-2001, Patient and Tumor Characteristics. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2007. NIH Pub. No. 07-6215, pp 251-61.
    13. Miller RW, Rabkin CS: Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma: etiological similarities and differences. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8 (2): 153-8, 1999.
    14. Lemos B, Nghiem P: Merkel cell carcinoma: more deaths but still no pathway to blame. J Invest Dermatol 127 (9): 2100-3, 2007.
    15. Albores-Saavedra J, Batich K, Chable-Montero F, et al.: Merkel cell carcinoma demographics, morphology, and survival based on 3870 cases: a population based study. J Cutan Pathol 37 (1): 20-7, 2010.
    16. Heath M, Jaimes N, Lemos B, et al.: Clinical characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma at diagnosis in 195 patients: the AEIOU features. J Am Acad Dermatol 58 (3): 375-81, 2008.
    17. Howard RA, Dores GM, Curtis RE, et al.: Merkel cell carcinoma and multiple primary cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15 (8): 1545-9, 2006.
    18. Bzhalava D, Bray F, Storm H, et al.: Risk of second cancers after the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma in Scandinavia. Br J Cancer 104 (1): 178-80, 2011.
    19. Lunder EJ, Stern RS: Merkel-cell carcinomas in patients treated with methoxsalen and ultraviolet A radiation. N Engl J Med 339 (17): 1247-8, 1998.
    20. Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, et al.: Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science 319 (5866): 1096-100, 2008.
    21. Garneski KM, Warcola AH, Feng Q, et al.: Merkel cell polyomavirus is more frequently present in North American than Australian Merkel cell carcinoma tumors. J Invest Dermatol 129 (1): 246-8, 2009.
    22. Becker JC, Houben R, Ugurel S, et al.: MC polyomavirus is frequently present in Merkel cell carcinoma of European patients. J Invest Dermatol 129 (1): 248-50, 2009.
    23. Kassem A, Schöpflin A, Diaz C, et al.: Frequent detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinomas and identification of a unique deletion in the VP1 gene. Cancer Res 68 (13): 5009-13, 2008.
    24. Houben R, Schrama D, Becker JC: Molecular pathogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma. Exp Dermatol 18 (3): 193-8, 2009.
    25. Paik JY, Hall G, Clarkson A, et al.: Immunohistochemistry for Merkel cell polyomavirus is highly specific but not sensitive for the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma in the Australian population. Hum Pathol 42 (10): 1385-90, 2011.
    26. Andres C, Belloni B, Puchta U, et al.: Prevalence of MCPyV in Merkel cell carcinoma and non-MCC tumors. J Cutan Pathol 37 (1): 28-34, 2010.
    27. Kassem A, Technau K, Kurz AK, et al.: Merkel cell polyomavirus sequences are frequently detected in nonmelanoma skin cancer of immunosuppressed patients. Int J Cancer 125 (2): 356-61, 2009.
    28. Foulongne V, Dereure O, Kluger N, et al.: Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA detection in lesional and nonlesional skin from patients with Merkel cell carcinoma or other skin diseases. Br J Dermatol 162 (1): 59-63, 2010.
    29. DeCaprio JA: Does detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma provide prognostic information? J Natl Cancer Inst 101 (13): 905-7, 2009.
    30. Laude HC, Jonchère B, Maubec E, et al.: Distinct merkel cell polyomavirus molecular features in tumour and non tumour specimens from patients with merkel cell carcinoma. PLoS Pathog 6 (8): , 2010.
    31. Buck CB, Lowy DR: Immune readouts may have prognostic value for the course of merkel cell carcinoma, a virally associated disease. J Clin Oncol 29 (12): 1506-8, 2011.
    32. Seattle Cancer Care Alliance.: Merkel Cell Carcinoma Information for Patients and Their Physicians: Clinical Photos/Images. Seattle, Wa: Seattle Cancer Care Alliance Skin Oncology Clinic, 2009. Available online. Last accessed October 18, 2013.
    33. Gupta SG, Wang LC, Peñas PF, et al.: Sentinel lymph node biopsy for evaluation and treatment of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma: The Dana-Farber experience and meta-analysis of the literature. Arch Dermatol 142 (6): 685-90, 2006.
    34. Anderson SE, Beer KT, Banic A, et al.: MRI of merkel cell carcinoma: histologic correlation and review of the literature. AJR Am J Roentgenol 185 (6): 1441-8, 2005.
    35. Iagaru A, Quon A, McDougall IR, et al.: Merkel cell carcinoma: Is there a role for 2-deoxy-2-[f-18]fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography? Mol Imaging Biol 8 (4): 212-7, 2006 Jul-Aug.
    36. Belhocine T, Pierard GE, Frühling J, et al.: Clinical added-value of 18FDG PET in neuroendocrine-merkel cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep 16 (2): 347-52, 2006.
    37. Missotten GS, de Wolff-Rouendaal D, de Keizer RJ: Merkel cell carcinoma of the eyelid review of the literature and report of patients with Merkel cell carcinoma showing spontaneous regression. Ophthalmology 115 (1): 195-201, 2008.
    38. Richetta AG, Mancini M, Torroni A, et al.: Total spontaneous regression of advanced merkel cell carcinoma after biopsy: review and a new case. Dermatol Surg 34 (6): 815-22, 2008.
    39. Allen PJ, Bowne WB, Jaques DP, et al.: Merkel cell carcinoma: prognosis and treatment of patients from a single institution. J Clin Oncol 23 (10): 2300-9, 2005.
    40. Stokes JB, Graw KS, Dengel LT, et al.: Patients with Merkel cell carcinoma tumors < or = 1.0 cm in diameter are unlikely to harbor regional lymph node metastasis. J Clin Oncol 27 (23): 3772-7, 2009.
    41. Jabbour J, Cumming R, Scolyer RA, et al.: Merkel cell carcinoma: assessing the effect of wide local excision, lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy on recurrence and survival in early-stage disease--results from a review of 82 consecutive cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2004. Ann Surg Oncol 14 (6): 1943-52, 2007.
    42. Henness S, Vereecken P: Management of Merkel tumours: an evidence-based review. Curr Opin Oncol 20 (3): 280-6, 2008.
    43. Skelton HG, Smith KJ, Hitchcock CL, et al.: Merkel cell carcinoma: analysis of clinical, histologic, and immunohistologic features of 132 cases with relation to survival. J Am Acad Dermatol 37 (5 Pt 1): 734-9, 1997.
    44. Sandel HD 4th, Day T, Richardson MS, et al.: Merkel cell carcinoma: does tumor size or depth of invasion correlate with recurrence, metastasis, or patient survival? Laryngoscope 116 (5): 791-5, 2006.
    45. Llombart B, Monteagudo C, López-Guerrero JA, et al.: Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of 20 cases of Merkel cell carcinoma in search of prognostic markers. Histopathology 46 (6): 622-34, 2005.
    46. Senchenkov A, Barnes SA, Moran SL: Predictors of survival and recurrence in the surgical treatment of merkel cell carcinoma of the extremities. J Surg Oncol 95 (3): 229-34, 2007.
    47. Goldberg SR, Neifeld JP, Frable WJ: Prognostic value of tumor thickness in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 95 (8): 618-22, 2007.
    48. Heath ML, Nghiem P: Merkel cell carcinoma: if no breslow, then what? J Surg Oncol 95 (8): 614-5, 2007.
    49. Tai P: Merkel cell cancer: update on biology and treatment. Curr Opin Oncol 20 (2): 196-200, 2008.
    50. Andea AA, Coit DG, Amin B, et al.: Merkel cell carcinoma: histologic features and prognosis. Cancer 113 (9): 2549-58, 2008.
    51. Paulson KG, Iyer JG, Tegeder AR, et al.: Transcriptome-wide studies of merkel cell carcinoma and validation of intratumoral CD8+ lymphocyte invasion as an independent predictor of survival. J Clin Oncol 29 (12): 1539-46, 2011.
    52. Fields RC, Busam KJ, Chou JF, et al.: Recurrence and survival in patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy for merkel cell carcinoma: analysis of 153 patients from a single institution. Ann Surg Oncol 18 (9): 2529-37, 2011.
    53. Sihto H, Kukko H, Koljonen V, et al.: Clinical factors associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in Merkel cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 101 (13): 938-45, 2009.
    54. Eng TY, Boersma MG, Fuller CD, et al.: Treatment of merkel cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol 27 (5): 510-5, 2004.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: 8/, 015
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
    1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6
    1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6
    Next Article:

    Today on WebMD

    man holding lung xray
    What you need to know.
    stem cells
    How they work for blood cancers.
    woman wearing pink ribbon
    Separate fact from fiction.
    Colorectal cancer cells
    Symptoms, screening tests, and more.
    Jennifer Goodman Linn self-portrait
    what is your cancer risk
    colorectal cancer treatment advances
    breast cancer overview slideshow
    prostate cancer overview
    lung cancer overview slideshow
    ovarian cancer overview slideshow
    Actor Michael Douglas