This disease is usually multifocal and commonly occurs at the vaginal vault. Because vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) is associated with other genital neoplasias, the cervix (when present) and vulva should be carefully examined. The treatments listed below produce equivalent cure rates. The selection of treatment depends on patient factors and local expertise (e.g., anatomical distortion of the vaginal vault [related to wall closure at the time of hysterectomy] requires excision for technical reasons to exclude the possibility of invasion by buried disease). Lesions with hyperkeratosis respond better to excision or laser vaporization than to fluorouracil.
Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)
The most common sites of metastasis for pheochromocytoma or extra-adrenal paraganglioma are lymph nodes, bones, lungs, and liver. Patients with known or suspected...
Intracavitary radiation therapy delivering 60 Gy to 70 Gy to the mucosa.[3,4] The entire vaginal mucosa should be treated.
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 vaginal cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Wright VC, Chapman W: Intraepithelial neoplasia of the lower female genital tract: etiology, investigation, and management. Semin Surg Oncol 8 (4): 180-90, 1992 Jul-Aug.
Krebs HB: Treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia with laser and topical 5-fluorouracil. Obstet Gynecol 73 (4): 657-60, 1989.
Perez CA, Camel HM, Galakatos AE, et al.: Definitive irradiation in carcinoma of the vagina: long-term evaluation of results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 15 (6): 1283-90, 1988.
Woodman CB, Mould JJ, Jordan JA: Radiotherapy in the management of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia after hysterectomy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 95 (10): 976-9, 1988.
Perez CA, Garipagaoglu M: Vagina. In: Perez CA, Brady LW, eds.: Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1998, pp 1891-1914.