Regardless of the size of the primary tumor, abnormal lymph nodes detected on pretreatment imaging studies or at the time of surgery should be resected. Because little is known about the natural history of unresected, grossly evident lymph node metastases, nonoperative management might otherwise be supported. Node-positive patients should undergo continued radiographic surveillance regardless of the size of the primary tumor.
Ampullary and periampullary duodenal carcinoids deserve special consideration because they differ clinically, histologically, and immunohistochemically from carcinoid tumors that occur elsewhere in the duodenum. Although their rarity precludes the establishment of any definitive natural history, these tumors appear to behave unpredictably and might be viewed as a distinct category of carcinoid tumor when treatment options are being considered. Compared to tumors in other duodenal sites, even small (<1 cm) ampullary and periampullary carcinoid tumors exhibit distinctly different aggressive behavior, and they may metastasize early.[5,6]
Current Clinical Trials
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with localized gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor and regional gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
- Mullen JT, Wang H, Yao JC, et al.: Carcinoid tumors of the duodenum. Surgery 138 (6): 971-7; discussion 977-8, 2005.
- Zyromski NJ, Kendrick ML, Nagorney DM, et al.: Duodenal carcinoid tumors: how aggressive should we be? J Gastrointest Surg 5 (6): 588-93, 2001 Nov-Dec.
- Yoshikane H, Tsukamoto Y, Niwa Y, et al.: Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: evaluation with endoscopic ultrasonography. Gastrointest Endosc 39 (3): 375-83, 1993 May-Jun.
- Modlin IM, Latich I, Kidd M, et al.: Therapeutic options for gastrointestinal carcinoids. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 4 (5): 526-47, 2006.
- Makhlouf HR, Burke AP, Sobin LH: Carcinoid tumors of the ampulla of Vater: a comparison with duodenal carcinoid tumors. Cancer 85 (6): 1241-9, 1999.
- Hatzitheoklitos E, Büchler MW, Friess H, et al.: Carcinoid of the ampulla of Vater. Clinical characteristics and morphologic features. Cancer 73 (6): 1580-8, 1994.