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Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors


In another study, statistically significantly reduced survival was observed for patients with midgut carcinoids who had urinary 5-HIAA concentrations greater than 300 μmol/24 hours compared with patients who had lower concentrations of urinary 5-HIAA.[79] Correspondingly, a study of patients with midgut carcinoid syndrome showed that urinary 5-HIAA levels greater than 500 μmol/24 hours were associated with shorter survival.[76] The degree of elevation of urinary 5-HIAA is also associated with the severity of carcinoid symptoms, with the highest levels being observed in patients with carcinoid heart failure.[76,80] In one study, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression by low-grade tumors and surrounding stromal cells was associated with progression-free survival (PFS); median durations of PFS in patients with strong and weak VEGF expression were 29 months and 81 months, respectively.[81]

Related Summaries

Other PDQ summaries containing information related to GI carcinoid tumors include the following:

  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
  • Rectal Cancer.
  • Small Intestine Cancer.
  • Unusual Cancers of Childhood (carcinoid tumors in children).


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Last Updated: September 04, 2014
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