Lymphedema is the build-up of fluid in soft body tissues when the lymph system is damaged or blocked.
Lymphedema occurs when the lymph system is damaged or blocked. Fluid builds up in soft body tissues and causes swelling. It is a common problem that may be caused by cancer and cancer treatment. Lymphedema usually affects an arm or leg, but it can also affect other parts of the body. Lymphedema can cause long-term physical, psychological, and social problems for patients.
The lymph system...
Penile cancer is rare in most developed nations, including the United States, where the rate is less than 1 per 100,000 men per year. Some studies suggest an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and penile cancer.[2,3,4,5] Observational studies have shown a lower prevalence of penile HPV in men who have been circumcised (odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.85). Some, but not all, observational studies also suggest that male newborncircumcision is associated with a decreased risk of penile cancer.[7,8] According to published data, if the relationship is causal, the number needed to treat was about 909 circumcisions to prevent a single case of invasive penile cancer.
When diagnosed early (stage 0, stage I, and stage II), penile cancer is highly curable. Curability decreases sharply for stage III and stage IV. Because of the rarity of this cancer in the United States, clinical trials specifically for penile cancer are infrequent. Patients with stage III and stage IV cancer can be candidates for phase I and phase II clinical trials testing new drugs, biologicals, or surgical techniques to improve local control and distant metastases.
The selection of treatment depends on the following:[10,11]
Stage of the tumor.
American Cancer Society.: Cancer Facts and Figures 2014. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, 2014. Available online. Last accessed March 26, 2014.
Del Mistro A, Chieco Bianchi L: HPV-related neoplasias in HIV-infected individuals. Eur J Cancer 37 (10): 1227-35, 2001.
Griffiths TR, Mellon JK: Human papillomavirus and urological tumours: I. Basic science and role in penile cancer. BJU Int 84 (5): 579-86, 1999.
Poblet E, Alfaro L, Fernander-Segoviano P, et al.: Human papillomavirus-associated penile squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-positive patients. Am J Surg Pathol 23 (9): 1119-23, 1999.
Frisch M, van den Brule AJ, Jiwa NM, et al.: HPV-16-positive anal and penile carcinomas in a young man--anogenital 'field effect' in the immunosuppressed male? Scand J Infect Dis 28 (6): 629-32, 1996.
Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, et al.: Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners. N Engl J Med 346 (15): 1105-12, 2002.
Schoen EJ, Oehrli M, Colby C, et al.: The highly protective effect of newborn circumcision against invasive penile cancer. Pediatrics 105 (3): E36, 2000.
Neonatal circumcision revisited. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. CMAJ 154 (6): 769-80, 1996.
Christakis DA, Harvey E, Zerr DM, et al.: A trade-off analysis of routine newborn circumcision. Pediatrics 105 (1 Pt 3): 246-9, 2000.
Trabulsi DJ, Gomella LG: Cancer of the urethra and penis. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 1272-79.
Chao KS, Perez CA: Penis and male urethra. In: Perez CA, Brady LW, eds.: Principles and Practice of Radiation Oncology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1998, pp 1717-1732.
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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute
May 28, 2015
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