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Testicular Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Testicular Cancer


AFP: Elevation of serum AFP is seen in 40% to 60% of men with nonseminomas. Seminomas do not produce AFP. Men who have an elevated serum AFP should be considered to have a mixed germ cell tumor (i.e., nonseminomatous germ cell tumors [NSGCT]) even if the pathology shows a pure seminoma, unless there is a more persuasive explanation for the elevated AFP, such as liver disease.

Beta-HCG: Elevation of the beta subunit of hCG is found in approximately 14% of the patients with stage I pure seminoma prior to orchiectomy and in about half of patients with metastatic seminoma.[11,12,13] Approximately 40% to 60% of men with nonseminomas have an elevated serum beta-hCG.

Significant and unambiguously rising levels of AFP and/or hCG are an indication of relapsed germ cell tumor in most cases and are an indication for treatment even in the absence of radiological evidence of metastatic disease. Nonetheless, tumor-marker elevations do need to be interpreted with caution. For example, false-positive hCG levels can result from cross reactivity of the assay with luteinizing hormone, in which case an intramuscular injection of testosterone should result in normalization of hCG values. There are also clinical reports of marijuana use resulting in elevations of serum hCG and some experts recommend querying patients about drug use and retesting hCG levels after a period of abstinence from marijuana use. Similarly, AFP is chronically mildly elevated in some individuals for unclear reasons and can be substantially elevated by liver disease.

LDH: Seminomas and nonseminomas alike may result in elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) but such values are of less clear prognostic significance because LDH may be elevated in many different conditions unrelated to cancer. A study of the utility of LDH in 499 patients with testicular germ cell tumor undergoing surveillance after orchiectomy or after treatment of stage II or III disease reported that 7.7% of patient visits had elevations in LDH unrelated to cancer, whereas only 1.4% of visits had cancer-related increases in LDH.[14] Of 15 relapses, LDH was elevated in six and was the first sign of relapse in one. Over 9% of the men had a persistent false-positive increase in LDH. The positive predictive value for an elevated LDH was 12.8%.

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