Stage Information for Testicular Cancer
Stage II testicular cancer involves the testis and the retroperitoneal or peri-aortic lymph nodes usually in the region of the kidney. Retroperitoneal involvement should be further characterized by the number of nodes involved and the size of involved nodes. The risk of recurrence is increased if more than five nodes are involved or if the size of one or more involved nodes is more than 2 cm. Bulky stage II disease (stage IIC) describes patients with extensive retroperitoneal nodes (>5 cm), which portends a less favorable prognosis.
Stage III implies spread beyond the retroperitoneal nodes based on physical examination, imaging studies, and/or blood tests (i.e., patients with retroperitoneal adenopathy and highly elevated serum tumor markers are stage III). Stage III can be further stratified based on the location of metastasis and the degree of elevation of serum tumor markers. In the favorable group (IIIA), metastases are limited to lymph nodes and lung, and serum tumor markers are no more than mildly elevated. Stage IIIB patients have moderately elevated tumor markers, while stage IIIC patients have highly elevated markers and/or metastases to liver, bone, brain or some organ other than the lungs. These subclassifications of stage III correspond to the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification system for disseminated germ cell tumors.
- Testis. In: Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, et al., eds.: AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. 7th ed. New York, NY: Springer, 2010, pp 469-73.
- International Germ Cell Consensus Classification: a prognostic factor-based staging system for metastatic germ cell cancers. International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group. J Clin Oncol 15 (2): 594-603, 1997.