Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Adult Primary Liver Cancer
Note: Some citations in the text of this section are followed by a level of evidence. The PDQ editorial boards use a formal ranking system to help the reader judge the strength of evidence linked to the reported results of a therapeutic strategy. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Levels of Evidence for more information.)
Incidence and Mortality
Estimated new cases and deaths from liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer in the United States in 2012:
- New cases: 28,720.
- Deaths: 20,550.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a tumor that is relatively uncommon in the United States, although its incidence is rising, principally in relation to the spread of hepatitis C infection. It is the most common cancer in some parts of the world, with more than 1 million new cases diagnosed each year. Hepatocellular carcinoma is potentially curable by surgical resection, but surgery is the treatment of choice for only the small fraction of patients with localized disease. Prognosis depends on the degree of local tumor replacement and the extent of liver function impairment. Therapy other than surgical resection is best administered as part of a clinical trial. Such trials evaluate the efficacy of systemic or infusional chemotherapy, hepatic artery ligation or embolization, percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy, and radiolabeled antibodies, often in conjunction with surgical resection and/or radiation therapy. In some studies of these approaches, long remissions have been reported. A few patients may be candidates for liver transplantation, but the limited availability of livers for transplantation restricts the use of this approach. Hepatocellular carcinoma can coexist with bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma).
Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with cirrhosis in 50% to 80% of patients; 5% of cirrhotic patients eventually develop hepatocellular cancer, which is often multifocal.
Hepatitis B infection [3,6] and hepatitis C infection  appear to be the most significant causes of hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide, particularly in patients with continuing antigenemia and in those who have chronic active hepatitis. A series found that male patients older than 50 years who have both hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection may be at particularly high risk for hepatocellular cancer.[Level of evidence: 3iiiDiv] There is evidence that patients with both hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection who consume more than 80 grams of alcohol per day have an increased risk of developing cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 7.3) when compared to patients who abstain from alcohol. Additionally, having a first-degree relative with hepatitis B plus hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with an increased risk (OR = 2.41) for family members who are hepatitis B carriers.
Aflatoxin has also been implicated as a factor in the etiology of primary liver cancer in parts of the world where this mycotoxin occurs in high levels in ingested food.[6,11] Workers who were exposed to vinyl chloride before controls on vinyl chloride dust were instituted developed sarcomas in the liver, most commonly angiosarcomas. Other sarcomas of smooth muscular and vascular origin are also found.