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Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment



Because of the increased risk for second malignancies and the fact that thymoma can recur after a long interval, it has been recommended that surveillance should be lifelong.[27] The measurement of interferon-alpha and interleukin-2 antibodies is helpful to identify patients with a thymoma recurrence.[32]

Related Summary

Another PDQ summary containing information related to thymoma includes the following:

  • Unusual Cancers of Childhood (thymoma in children).


  1. Rosai J: Histological Typing of Tumours of the Thymus. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 2nd ed., 1999.
  2. Fornasiero A, Daniele O, Ghiotto C, et al.: Chemotherapy of invasive thymoma. J Clin Oncol 8 (8): 1419-23, 1990.
  3. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM: Malignant thymoma in the United States: demographic patterns in incidence and associations with subsequent malignancies. Int J Cancer 105 (4): 546-51, 2003.
  4. Greene MA, Malias MA: Aggressive multimodality treatment of invasive thymic carcinoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 125 (2): 434-6, 2003.
  5. Ogawa K, Toita T, Uno T, et al.: Treatment and prognosis of thymic carcinoma: a retrospective analysis of 40 cases. Cancer 94 (12): 3115-9, 2002.
  6. Blumberg D, Burt ME, Bains MS, et al.: Thymic carcinoma: current staging does not predict prognosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 115 (2): 303-8; discussion 308-9, 1998.
  7. Schmidt-Wolf IG, Rockstroh JK, Schüller H, et al.: Malignant thymoma: current status of classification and multimodality treatment. Ann Hematol 82 (2): 69-76, 2003.
  8. Cameron RB, Loehrer PJ, Thomas CR Jr: Neoplasms of the mediastinum. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 871-81.
  9. Detterbeck FC, Parsons AM: Thymic tumors. Ann Thorac Surg 77 (5): 1860-9, 2004.
  10. Okumura M, Ohta M, Tateyama H, et al.: The World Health Organization histologic classification system reflects the oncologic behavior of thymoma: a clinical study of 273 patients. Cancer 94 (3): 624-32, 2002.
  11. Strollo DC, Rosado-de-Christenson ML: Tumors of the thymus. J Thorac Imaging 14 (3): 152-71, 1999.
  12. Hoffacker V, Schultz A, Tiesinga JJ, et al.: Thymomas alter the T-cell subset composition in the blood: a potential mechanism for thymoma-associated autoimmune disease. Blood 96 (12): 3872-9, 2000.
  13. Buckley C, Douek D, Newsom-Davis J, et al.: Mature, long-lived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are generated by the thymoma in myasthenia gravis. Ann Neurol 50 (1): 64-72, 2001.
  14. Ströbel P, Helmreich M, Menioudakis G, et al.: Paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis correlates with generation of mature naive CD4(+) T cells in thymomas. Blood 100 (1): 159-66, 2002.
  15. Levy Y, Afek A, Sherer Y, et al.: Malignant thymoma associated with autoimmune diseases: a retrospective study and review of the literature. Semin Arthritis Rheum 28 (2): 73-9, 1998.
  16. Ritter JH, Wick MR: Primary carcinomas of the thymus gland. Semin Diagn Pathol 16 (1): 18-31, 1999.
  17. Voltz RD, Albrich WC, Nägele A, et al.: Paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis: detection of anti-MGT30 (titin) antibodies predicts thymic epithelial tumor. Neurology 49 (5): 1454-7, 1997.
  18. Gautel M, Lakey A, Barlow DP, et al.: Titin antibodies in myasthenia gravis: identification of a major immunogenic region of titin. Neurology 43 (8): 1581-5, 1993.
  19. Tarr PE, Sneller MC, Mechanic LJ, et al.: Infections in patients with immunodeficiency with thymoma (Good syndrome). Report of 5 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 80 (2): 123-33, 2001.
  20. Montella L, Masci AM, Merkabaoui G, et al.: B-cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia in thymoma patients. Ann Hematol 82 (6): 343-7, 2003.
  21. Cucchiara BL, Forman MS, McGarvey ML, et al.: Fatal subacute cytomegalovirus encephalitis associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and thymoma. Mayo Clin Proc 78 (2): 223-7, 2003.
  22. Morgenthaler TI, Brown LR, Colby TV, et al.: Thymoma. Mayo Clin Proc 68 (11): 1110-23, 1993.
  23. Souadjian JV, Enriquez P, Silverstein MN, et al.: The spectrum of diseases associated with thymoma. Coincidence or syndrome? Arch Intern Med 134 (2): 374-9, 1974.
  24. Thomas CR, Wright CD, Loehrer PJ: Thymoma: state of the art. J Clin Oncol 17 (7): 2280-9, 1999.
  25. Kondo K, Monden Y: Thymoma and myasthenia gravis: a clinical study of 1,089 patients from Japan. Ann Thorac Surg 79 (1): 219-24, 2005.
  26. Budde JM, Morris CD, Gal AA, et al.: Predictors of outcome in thymectomy for myasthenia gravis. Ann Thorac Surg 72 (1): 197-202, 2001.
  27. Evoli A, Minisci C, Di Schino C, et al.: Thymoma in patients with MG: characteristics and long-term outcome. Neurology 59 (12): 1844-50, 2002.
  28. Pan CC, Chen PC, Wang LS, et al.: Thymoma is associated with an increased risk of second malignancy. Cancer 92 (9): 2406-11, 2001.
  29. Moore KH, McKenzie PR, Kennedy CW, et al.: Thymoma: trends over time. Ann Thorac Surg 72 (1): 203-7, 2001.
  30. Ogawa K, Uno T, Toita T, et al.: Postoperative radiotherapy for patients with completely resected thymoma: a multi-institutional, retrospective review of 103 patients. Cancer 94 (5): 1405-13, 2002.
  31. Eng TY, Fuller CD, Jagirdar J, et al.: Thymic carcinoma: state of the art review. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 59 (3): 654-64, 2004.
  32. Buckley C, Newsom-Davis J, Willcox N, et al.: Do titin and cytokine antibodies in MG patients predict thymoma or thymoma recurrence? Neurology 57 (9): 1579-82, 2001.

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Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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