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Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage Information for Thymoma and Thymic Carcinomas

Thymoma Staging System of Masaoka 1994a continued...

In a retrospective analysis of 130 resected, thymoma patients, the WHO pathological classification was tightly correlated with stage and by multivariate analysis, tumor size, completeness of resection, histologic subtype, and stage were significant prognostic factors for survival. Of note, only four patients received neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy and complete resection was possible in 95% of cases. The 5-year survival rate of the 11 stage IV patients was 47%.[12]

Some investigators maintain that the Masaoka staging system does not accurately predict outcome for thymic carcinoma.[14,15] In one retrospective study evaluating 43 cases of thymic carcinoma, prognosis was found to be dependent solely on tumor invasion of the innominate artery.[15]

References:

  1. Sperling B, Marschall J, Kennedy R, et al.: Thymoma: a review of the clinical and pathological findings in 65 cases. Can J Surg 46 (1): 37-42, 2003.
  2. Rendina EA, Venuta F, Ceroni L, et al.: Computed tomographic staging of anterior mediastinal neoplasms. Thorax 43 (6): 441-5, 1988.
  3. Rosai J: Histological Typing of Tumours of the Thymus. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 2nd ed., 1999.
  4. Tomiyama N, Johkoh T, Mihara N, et al.: Using the World Health Organization Classification of thymic epithelial neoplasms to describe CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 179 (4): 881-6, 2002.
  5. Sasaki M, Kuwabara Y, Ichiya Y, et al.: Differential diagnosis of thymic tumors using a combination of 11C-methionine PET and FDG PET. J Nucl Med 40 (10): 1595-601, 1999.
  6. Kageyama M, Seto H, Shimizu M, et al.: Thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography in the evaluation of thymic carcinoma. Radiat Med 12 (5): 237-9, 1994 Sep-Oct.
  7. Adams S, Baum RP, Hertel A, et al.: Metabolic (PET) and receptor (SPET) imaging of well- and less well-differentiated tumours: comparison with the expression of the Ki-67 antigen. Nucl Med Commun 19 (7): 641-7, 1998.
  8. Kubota K, Yamada S, Kondo T, et al.: PET imaging of primary mediastinal tumours. Br J Cancer 73 (7): 882-6, 1996.
  9. Okumura M, Ohta M, Tateyama H, et al.: The World Health Organization histologic classification system reflects the oncologic behavior of thymoma: a clinical study of 273 patients. Cancer 94 (3): 624-32, 2002.
  10. Chen G, Marx A, Wen-Hu C, et al.: New WHO histologic classification predicts prognosis of thymic epithelial tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 200 thymoma cases from China. Cancer 95 (2): 420-9, 2002.
  11. Masaoka A, Monden Y, Nakahara K, et al.: Follow-up study of thymomas with special reference to their clinical stages. Cancer 48 (11): 2485-92, 1981.
  12. Nakagawa K, Asamura H, Matsuno Y, et al.: Thymoma: a clinicopathologic study based on the new World Health Organization classification. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126 (4): 1134-40, 2003.
  13. Cameron RB, Loehrer PJ Sr, Thomas CR Jr: Neoplasms of the mediastinum. In: DeVita VT Jr, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds.: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005, pp 845-58.
  14. Ritter JH, Wick MR: Primary carcinomas of the thymus gland. Semin Diagn Pathol 16 (1): 18-31, 1999.
  15. Blumberg D, Burt ME, Bains MS, et al.: Thymic carcinoma: current staging does not predict prognosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 115 (2): 303-8; discussion 308-9, 1998.
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Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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