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Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma


Eventually, most patients with epidemic KS develop disseminated disease. The disease often progresses in an orderly fashion from a few localized or widespread mucocutaneous lesions to more numerous lesions and generalized skin disease with lymph node, gastrointestinal tract disease, and other organ involvement. Pleuropulmonary KS is an ominous sign usually occurring late in the course of the disease, especially in those patients whose death is directly attributed to KS.[27] Most patients with epidemic KS die of one or more complicating opportunistic infections.

Nonepidemic Gay–Related Kaposi Sarcoma

Several reports documented KS in homosexual men who persistently had no evidence of HIV infection. These patients had an indolent and cutaneous form of the disease, which caused new lesions to appear every few years. Lesions occur most commonly on the extremities and genitalia but can occur anywhere on the skin.[1] These cases may indicate the presence of causal factors other than HIV that homosexual men may be exposed to because of their lifestyle.


  1. Friedman-Kien AE, Saltzman BR, Cao YZ, et al.: Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-negative homosexual men. Lancet 335 (8682): 168-9, 1990.
  2. Safai B: Kaposi's sarcoma and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg S, eds.: AIDS: Etiology, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997, pp 295-318.
  3. Chang Y, Cesarman E, Pessin MS, et al.: Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Science 266 (5192): 1865-9, 1994.
  4. Moore PS, Chang Y: Detection of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with and without HIV infection. N Engl J Med 332 (18): 1181-5, 1995.
  5. Su IJ, Hsu YS, Chang YC, et al.: Herpesvirus-like DNA sequence in Kaposi's sarcoma from AIDS and non-AIDS patients in Taiwan. Lancet 345 (8951): 722-3, 1995.
  6. Gao SJ, Kingsley L, Li M, et al.: KSHV antibodies among Americans, Italians and Ugandans with and without Kaposi's sarcoma. Nat Med 2 (8): 925-8, 1996.
  7. Chang Y, Ziegler J, Wabinga H, et al.: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Kaposi's sarcoma in Africa. Uganda Kaposi's Sarcoma Study Group. Arch Intern Med 156 (2): 202-4, 1996.
  8. Safai B, Good RA: Kaposi's sarcoma: a review and recent developments. Clin Bull 10 (2): 62-9, 1980.
  9. Reynolds WA, Winkelmann RK, Soule EH: Kaposi's sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study with particular reference to its relationship to the reticuloendothelial system. Medicine (Baltimore) 44 (5): 419-43, 1965.
  10. Safai B, Miké V, Giraldo G, et al.: Association of Kaposi's sarcoma with second primary malignancies: possible etiopathogenic implications. Cancer 45 (6): 1472-9, 1980.
  11. Taylor JF, Templeton AC, Vogel CL, et al.: Kaposi's sarcoma in Uganda: a clinico-pathological study. Int J Cancer 8 (1): 122-35, 1971.
  12. Templeton AC, Bhana D: Prognosis in Kaposi's sarcoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 55 (6): 1301-4, 1975.
  13. Penn I: Kaposi's sarcoma in organ transplant recipients: report of 20 cases. Transplantation 27 (1): 8-11, 1979.
  14. Kaposi's sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men--New York City and California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 30 (25): 305-8, 1981.
  15. Vogel J, Hinrichs SH, Reynolds RK, et al.: The HIV tat gene induces dermal lesions resembling Kaposi's sarcoma in transgenic mice. Nature 335 (6191): 606-11, 1988.
  16. Selik RM, Starcher ET, Curran JW: Opportunistic diseases reported in AIDS patients: frequencies, associations, and trends. AIDS 1 (3): 175-82, 1987.
  17. Flexner C: HIV-protease inhibitors. N Engl J Med 338 (18): 1281-92, 1998.
  18. Palella FJ Jr, Delaney KM, Moorman AC, et al.: Declining morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. HIV Outpatient Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 338 (13): 853-60, 1998.
  19. Lodi S, Guiguet M, Costagliola D, et al.: Kaposi sarcoma incidence and survival among HIV-infected homosexual men after HIV seroconversion. J Natl Cancer Inst 102 (11): 784-92, 2010.
  20. Portsmouth S, Stebbing J, Gill J, et al.: A comparison of regimens based on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors in preventing Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS 17 (11): F17-22, 2003.
  21. International Collaboration on HIV and Cancer.: Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. J Natl Cancer Inst 92 (22): 1823-30, 2000.
  22. Dupont C, Vasseur E, Beauchet A, et al.: Long-term efficacy on Kaposi's sarcoma of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV-positive patients. CISIH 92. Centre d'information et de soins de l'immunodéficience humaine. AIDS 14 (8): 987-93, 2000.
  23. Tam HK, Zhang ZF, Jacobson LP, et al.: Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on survival among HIV-infected men with Kaposi sarcoma or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Int J Cancer 98 (6): 916-22, 2002.
  24. Carrieri MP, Pradier C, Piselli P, et al.: Reduced incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma and of systemic non-hodgkin's lymphoma in HIV-infected individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Cancer 103 (1): 142-4, 2003.
  25. Grabar S, Abraham B, Mahamat A, et al.: Differential impact of combination antiretroviral therapy in preventing Kaposi's sarcoma with and without visceral involvement. J Clin Oncol 24 (21): 3408-14, 2006.
  26. Krigel RL, Laubenstein LJ, Muggia FM: Kaposi's sarcoma: a new staging classification. Cancer Treat Rep 67 (6): 531-4, 1983.
  27. Gill PS, Akil B, Colletti P, et al.: Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma: clinical findings and results of therapy. Am J Med 87 (1): 57-61, 1989.

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Last Updated: February 25, 2014
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