Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Hypopharyngeal Cancer
In many patients, a poor prognosis is related to poor overall health. The most common cause of failure of treatment of the primary tumor is local and/or regional recurrence. Most treatment failures occur within the first 2 years following definitive therapy. The burden of lymph node metastases may yield information of prognostic value. In a retrospective study, a total volume of metastatic disease of more than 100 cm3 indicated a particularly poor prognosis.
In addition to the risk of delayed regional metastases, the risk of developing a second primary tumor in patients with tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract has been estimated to be 4% to 7% per year.[20,26,27,28] Because of these risks, surveillance of patients with hypopharyngeal cancer should be lifelong.
To date, SCC of the hypopharynx has not been associated with any specific chromosomal or genetic abnormalities; however, loss of chromosome 18 was observed in 57% of hypopharyngeal tumors in one study. Several other studies have emphasized the importance of chromosome 11q13 amplification, which may be related to the presence of nodal metastases, greater local aggressiveness, and a higher incidence of tumor recurrence.[30,31,32,33]
- Mendenhall WM, Werning JW, Pfister DG: Treatment of head and neck cancer. In: DeVita VT Jr, Lawrence TS, Rosenberg SA: Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011, pp 729-80.
- Uzcudun AE, Bravo Fernández P, Sánchez JJ, et al.: Clinical features of pharyngeal cancer: a retrospective study of 258 consecutive patients. J Laryngol Otol 115 (2): 112-8, 2001.
- Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Winn DM, et al.: Smoking and drinking in relation to oral and pharyngeal cancer. Cancer Res 48 (11): 3282-7, 1988.
- Day GL, Blot WJ, Shore RE, et al.: Second cancers following oral and pharyngeal cancers: role of tobacco and alcohol. J Natl Cancer Inst 86 (2): 131-7, 1994.
- Canto MT, Devesa SS: Oral cavity and pharynx cancer incidence rates in the United States, 1975-1998. Oral Oncol 38 (6): 610-7, 2002.
- Franceschi S, Bidoli E, Herrero R, et al.: Comparison of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx worldwide: etiological clues. Oral Oncol 36 (1): 106-15, 2000.
- Siddiqui F, Sarin R, Agarwal JP, et al.: Squamous carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx in children: a distinct clinical entity? Med Pediatr Oncol 40 (5): 322-4, 2003.
- WYNDER EL, HULTBERG S, JACOBSSON F, et al.: Environmental factors in cancer of the upper alimentary tract; a Swedish study with special reference to Plummer-Vinson (Paterson-Kelly) syndrome. Cancer 10 (3): 470-87, 1957 May-Jun.
- Ahlbom HE: Simple achlorhydric anaemia, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, and carcinoma of the mouth, pharynx, and oesophagus in women. Br Med J 2 (3945): 331-3, 1936.
- Larsson LG, Sandström A, Westling P: Relationship of Plummer-Vinson disease to cancer of the upper alimentary tract in Sweden. Cancer Res 35 (11 Pt. 2): 3308-16, 1975.
- Amos A: Women and smoking. Br Med Bull 52 (1): 74-89, 1996.
- Barnes L, Johnson JT: Pathologic and clinical considerations in the evaluation of major head and neck specimens resected for cancer. Part I. Pathol Annu 21 Pt 1: 173-250, 1986.
- Helliwell TR: acp Best Practice No 169. Evidence based pathology: squamous carcinoma of the hypopharynx. J Clin Pathol 56 (2): 81-5, 2003.
- Raghavan U, Quraishi S, Bradley PJ: Multiple primary tumors in patients diagnosed with hypopharyngeal cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 128 (3): 419-25, 2003.
- Tabor MP, Brakenhoff RH, van Houten VM, et al.: Persistence of genetically altered fields in head and neck cancer patients: biological and clinical implications. Clin Cancer Res 7 (6): 1523-32, 2001.
- Braakhuis BJ, Tabor MP, Kummer JA, et al.: A genetic explanation of Slaughter's concept of field cancerization: evidence and clinical implications. Cancer Res 63 (8): 1727-30, 2003.
- Slaughter DP, Southwick HW, Smejkal W: Field cancerization in oral stratified squamous epithelium: clinical implications of multicentric origin. Cancer 6 (5): 963-8, 1953.
- Horwitz SD, Caldarelli DD, Hendrickson FR: Treatment of carcinoma of the hypopharynx. Head Neck Surg 2 (2): 107-11, 1979 Nov-Dec.
- Keane TJ: Carcinoma of the hypopharynx. J Otolaryngol 11 (4): 227-31, 1982.
- Spector JG, Sessions DG, Haughey BH, et al.: Delayed regional metastases, distant metastases, and second primary malignancies in squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx. Laryngoscope 111 (6): 1079-87, 2001.
- Kotwall C, Sako K, Razack MS, et al.: Metastatic patterns in squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Am J Surg 154 (4): 439-42, 1987.
- Godballe C, Jørgensen K, Hansen O, et al.: Hypopharyngeal cancer: results of treatment based on radiation therapy and salvage surgery. Laryngoscope 112 (5): 834-8, 2002.
- Hinerman RW, Amdur RJ, Mendenhall WM, et al.: Hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol 3 (1): 41-9, 2002.
- Lefebvre JL, Chevalier D, Luboinski B, et al.: Larynx preservation in pyriform sinus cancer: preliminary results of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial. EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 88 (13): 890-9, 1996.
- Jakobsen J, Hansen O, Jørgensen KE, et al.: Lymph node metastases from laryngeal and pharyngeal carcinomas--calculation of burden of metastasis and its impact on prognosis. Acta Oncol 37 (5): 489-93, 1998.
- Khuri FR, Lippman SM, Spitz MR, et al.: Molecular epidemiology and retinoid chemoprevention of head and neck cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 89 (3): 199-211, 1997.
- Pfister DG, Shaha AR, Harrison LB: The role of chemotherapy in the curative treatment of head and neck cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am 6 (4): 749-68, 1997.
- León X, Quer M, Diez S, et al.: Second neoplasm in patients with head and neck cancer. Head Neck 21 (3): 204-10, 1999.
- Poetsch M, Kleist B, Lorenz G, et al.: Different numerical chromosomal aberrations detected by FISH in oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Histopathology 34 (3): 234-40, 1999.
- Meredith SD, Levine PA, Burns JA, et al.: Chromosome 11q13 amplification in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Association with poor prognosis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121 (7): 790-4, 1995.
- Muller D, Millon R, Velten M, et al.: Amplification of 11q13 DNA markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas: correlation with clinical outcome. Eur J Cancer 33 (13): 2203-10, 1997.
- Rodrigo JP, García LA, Ramos S, et al.: EMS1 gene amplification correlates with poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Clin Cancer Res 6 (8): 3177-82, 2000.
- Rodrigo JP, González MV, Lazo PS, et al.: Genetic alterations in squamous cell carcinomas of the hypopharynx with correlations to clinicopathological features. Oral Oncol 38 (4): 357-63, 2002.