Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Postinduction Treatment for Specific ALL Subgroups
Table 3. Outcome According to Treatment Protocol for Adolescents and Young Adults with ALL continued...
Treatment options under clinical evaluation for adolescent and young adult patients with ALL
Treatment options under clinical evaluation include the following:
- COG-AALL0434 (NCT00408005) (Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Newly Diagnosed T-Cell ALL or T-cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma): This is a phase III trial for patients aged 1 to 30 years with T-cell ALL utilizing a modified augmented BFM regimen. Patients are classified into one of three risk groups (low, intermediate, or high) based on NCI age/leukocyte criteria, CNS status at diagnosis, morphologic marrow response on days 15 and 29, and MRD level at day 29. The objectives of the trial are (1) to determine the safety and efficacy of adding nelarabine to the modified augmented BFM regimen in high- and intermediate-risk patients, (2) to determine the relative safety and efficacy of high-dose versus Capizzi methotrexate during interim maintenance, and (3) to test the efficacy of treating low-risk T-cell ALL patients without cranial radiation.
- OSU-08066 (Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Adult Patients With Newly Diagnosed ALL): DFCI protocol 06-254 (OSU-08066) is a phase II trial conducted by the DFCI ALL Consortium for patients aged 18 to 50 years with newly diagnosed ALL. The treatment regimen is similar to the very high-risk arm on the pediatric DFCI protocol, DFCI-05001, and includes 30 weeks of postinduction consolidation with IV PEG-asparaginase (given every 3 weeks). Older adolescents (aged 15–18 years) are treated on pediatric protocol DFCI-11-001 (NCT01574274) as high-risk patients.
- COG-AALL1131 (Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Newly Diagnosed High-Risk ALL): The COG-AALL1131 protocol for patients with high-risk B-precursor ALL includes a randomized comparison of intrathecal triple chemotherapy (methotrexate, cytarabine, and hydrocortisone) with intrathecal methotrexate, with the objective of determining whether intrathecal triple chemotherapy reduces CNS-relapse rates and improves overall EFS. Only patients with CNS3 status at diagnosis will receive cranial radiation (18 Gy). Patients with induction failure or low hypodiploidy are eligible for allogeneic SCT in first remission.
Philadelphia Chromosome–Positive ALL
Prior to use of imatinib mesylate (see below), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched sibling donor was the treatment of choice for patients with Ph+ ALL.[45,46,47] Data to support this include a retrospective multigroup analysis of children and young adults with Ph+ ALL, in which HSCT from a matched sibling donor was associated with a better outcome than standard (pre-imatinib mesylate) chemotherapy. In this retrospective analysis, Ph+ ALL patients undergoing HSCT from an unrelated donor had a very poor outcome. However, in a follow-up study by the same group evaluating outcomes in the subsequent decade (pre-imatinib mesylate era), transplantation with matched-related or matched-unrelated donors were equivalent. DFS at the 5-year time point showed an advantage for transplantation in first remission compared with chemotherapy that was borderline significant (P = .049), and OS was also higher for transplantation compared with chemotherapy, although the advantage at 5 years was not significant.