Treatment Options for Stages I and II
Hepatoblastoma of pure fetal histology: For tumors of pure fetal histology, complete surgical resection followed by watchful waiting or single-agent doxorubicin.In the Children's Oncology Group (COG) study COG-P9645, stage I pure fetal histology hepatoblastomas with two or fewer mitoses per 10 high power fields were not treated with chemotherapy. Completely excised tumor of purely fetal and favorable histology may be carefully followed without...
SCCs may be noninvasive or invasive. For noninvasive SCC, the term carcinoma in situ is used. Histologically, invasive carcinomas are well-differentiated, moderately differentiated, poorly differentiated, or undifferentiated. SCCs are usually moderately or poorly differentiated. Grading the deep invasive margins (i.e., invasive front) of SCC may provide better prognostic information than grading of the entire tumor.
Immunohistochemical examination of tissues for the expression of the biomarker Ki-67, a proliferation antigen, may complement histologic grading. As a molecular indicator of epithelial dysplasia of the oropharynx, Ki-67 expression appears to correlate well with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in tumor cells. In a retrospective study involving 43 tissue samples from 25 patients, the assessment of proliferation with Ki-67 was found to be a better surrogate for LOH than histologic grading.
Leukoplakia should be used only as a clinically descriptive term meaning that the observer sees a white patch that does not rub off, the significance of which depends on the histologic findings. Leukoplakia can range from hyperkeratosis to an actual early invasive carcinoma or may only represent a fungal infection, lichen planus, or other benign oral disease. (Refer to the General Information About Oropharyngeal Cancer section of this summary for more information.)
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