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Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - General Information About Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders

The chronic myeloproliferative disorders consist of chronic myelogenous leukemia, polycythemia vera (p. vera), primary myelofibrosis, essential thrombocythemia, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, and chronic eosinophilic leukemia. All of these disorders involve dysregulation at the multipotent hematopoietic stem cell (CD34), with one or more of the following shared features:

  • Overproduction of one or several blood elements with dominance of a transformed clone.
  • Hypercellular marrow/marrow fibrosis.
  • Cytogenetic abnormalities.
  • Thrombotic and/or hemorrhagic diatheses.
  • Extramedullary hematopoiesis (liver/spleen).
  • Transformation to acute leukemia.
  • Overlapping clinical features.

Patients with p. vera and essential thrombocythemia have marked increases of red blood cell and platelet production, respectively. Treatment is directed at reducing the excessive numbers of blood cells. Both p. vera and essential thrombocythemia can develop a spent phase late in their courses that resembles primary myelofibrosis with cytopenias and marrow hypoplasia and fibrosis.[1,2,3] A specific point mutation in one copy of the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2), a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, on chromosome 9, which causes increased proliferation and survival of hematopoietic precursors in vitro, has been identified in most patients with p. vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis.[4,5,6,7,8,9] Researchers are pursuing specific targeting of this aberrant protein.

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There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms. These diseases are all associated with a monoclonal (or myeloma) protein (M protein). They include monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), isolated plasmacytoma of the bone, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and multiple myeloma. (Refer to the Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (Waldenström Macroglobulinemia) section in the PDQ summary on Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment for more information.) Incidence and Mortality Estimated new...

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  1. Schafer AI: Bleeding and thrombosis in the myeloproliferative disorders. Blood 64 (1): 1-12, 1984.
  2. Barosi G: Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia: diagnostic definition and prognostic classification for clinical studies and treatment guidelines. J Clin Oncol 17 (9): 2954-70, 1999.
  3. Tefferi A: Myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. N Engl J Med 342 (17): 1255-65, 2000.
  4. Kralovics R, Passamonti F, Buser AS, et al.: A gain-of-function mutation of JAK2 in myeloproliferative disorders. N Engl J Med 352 (17): 1779-90, 2005.
  5. Baxter EJ, Scott LM, Campbell PJ, et al.: Acquired mutation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in human myeloproliferative disorders. Lancet 365 (9464): 1054-61, 2005 Mar 19-25.
  6. James C, Ugo V, Le Couédic JP, et al.: A unique clonal JAK2 mutation leading to constitutive signalling causes polycythaemia vera. Nature 434 (7037): 1144-8, 2005.
  7. Levine RL, Wadleigh M, Cools J, et al.: Activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis. Cancer Cell 7 (4): 387-97, 2005.
  8. Scott LM, Tong W, Levine RL, et al.: JAK2 exon 12 mutations in polycythemia vera and idiopathic erythrocytosis. N Engl J Med 356 (5): 459-68, 2007.
  9. Campbell PJ, Green AR: The myeloproliferative disorders. N Engl J Med 355 (23): 2452-66, 2006.

    This information is produced and provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The information in this topic may have changed since it was written. For the most current information, contact the National Cancer Institute via the Internet web site at http:// cancer .gov or call 1-800-4-CANCER.

    WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

    Last Updated: September 04, 2014
    This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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