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Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Treatment - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Stage IV Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

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Treatment options under clinical evaluation (all stage IV lesions):

  1. Chemotherapy has been combined with radiation therapy in patients who have locally advanced disease that is surgically unresectable.[6,7,8,9]

    A meta-analysis of 63 randomized, prospective trials published between 1965 and 1993 showed an 8% absolute survival advantage in the subset of patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.[10][Level of evidence: 2A] Patients receiving adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy had no survival advantage. Cost, quality of life, and morbidity data were not available; no standard regimen existed; and the trials were felt to be too heterogenous to provide definitive recommendations. The results of 18 ongoing trials may further clarify the role of concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the management of oral cavity cancer.

    The best chemotherapy to use and the appropriate way to integrate the two modalities is still unresolved.[11]

    Similar approaches in the patient with resectable disease, in whom resection would lead to a major functional deficit, are also being explored in randomized trials but cannot be recommended at this time as standard.

  2. Clinical trials for advanced tumors evaluating the use of chemotherapy preoperatively, before radiation therapy, or as adjuvant therapy after surgery are appropriate.[6,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19]
  3. Novel fractionation radiation therapy clinical trials are under clinical evaluation.[20]

Current Clinical Trials

Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's list of cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IV lip and oral cavity cancer. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.

General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.

References:

  1. Mazeron JJ, Martin M, Brun B, et al.: Induction chemotherapy in head and neck cancer: results of a phase III trial. Head Neck 14 (2): 85-91, 1992 Mar-Apr.
  2. Hong WK, Lippman SM, Itri LM, et al.: Prevention of second primary tumors with isotretinoin in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 323 (12): 795-801, 1990.
  3. Johnson CR, Khandelwal SR, Schmidt-Ullrich RK, et al.: The influence of quantitative tumor volume measurements on local control in advanced head and neck cancer using concomitant boost accelerated superfractionated irradiation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 32 (3): 635-41, 1995.
  4. Franceschi D, Gupta R, Spiro RH, et al.: Improved survival in the treatment of squamous carcinoma of the oral tongue. Am J Surg 166 (4): 360-5, 1993.
  5. Harrison LB, Sessions RB, Hong WK, eds.: Head and Neck Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, William & Wilkins, 2009.
  6. Al-Sarraf M, Pajak TF, Marcial VA, et al.: Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cisplatin in inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. An RTOG Study. Cancer 59 (2): 259-65, 1987.
  7. Bachaud JM, David JM, Boussin G, et al.: Combined postoperative radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin infusion for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: preliminary report of a randomized trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 20 (2): 243-6, 1991.
  8. Merlano M, Corvo R, Margarino G, et al.: Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy in advanced inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The final report of a randomized trial. Cancer 67 (4): 915-21, 1991.
  9. Merlano M, Benasso M, Corvò R, et al.: Five-year update of a randomized trial of alternating radiotherapy and chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in treatment of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Natl Cancer Inst 88 (9): 583-9, 1996.
  10. Pignon JP, Bourhis J, Domenge C, et al.: Chemotherapy added to locoregional treatment for head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma: three meta-analyses of updated individual data. MACH-NC Collaborative Group. Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy on Head and Neck Cancer. Lancet 355 (9208): 949-55, 2000.
  11. Taylor SG 4th, Murthy AK, Vannetzel JM, et al.: Randomized comparison of neoadjuvant cisplatin and fluorouracil infusion followed by radiation versus concomitant treatment in advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 12 (2): 385-95, 1994.
  12. Al-Kourainy K, Kish J, Ensley J, et al.: Achievement of superior survival for histologically negative versus histologically positive clinically complete responders to cisplatin combination in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Cancer 59 (2): 233-8, 1987.
  13. Adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced head and neck squamous carcinoma. Final report of the Head and Neck Contracts Program. Cancer 60 (3): 301-11, 1987.
  14. Toohill RJ, Duncavage JA, Grossmam TW, et al.: The effects of delay in standard treatment due to induction chemotherapy in two randomized prospective studies. Laryngoscope 97 (4): 407-12, 1987.
  15. Ensley J, Crissman J, Kish J, et al.: The impact of conventional morphologic analysis on response rates and survival in patients with advanced head and neck cancers treated initially with cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy. Cancer 57 (4): 711-7, 1986.
  16. Fu KK, Phillips TL, Silverberg IJ, et al.: Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy with bleomycin and methotrexate for advanced inoperable head and neck cancer: update of a Northern California Oncology Group randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 5 (9): 1410-8, 1987.
  17. Ryan RF, Krementz ET, Truesdale GL: Salvage of stage IV intraoral squamous cell carcinomas with preoperative 5-fluorouracil. Cancer 57 (4): 699-705, 1986.
  18. Ervin TJ, Clark JR, Weichselbaum RR, et al.: An analysis of induction and adjuvant chemotherapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Clin Oncol 5 (1): 10-20, 1987.
  19. Browman GP, Cripps C, Hodson DI, et al.: Placebo-controlled randomized trial of infusional fluorouracil during standard radiotherapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Clin Oncol 12 (12): 2648-53, 1994.
  20. Stuschke M, Thames HD: Hyperfractionated radiotherapy of human tumors: overview of the randomized clinical trials. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 37 (2): 259-67, 1997.
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WebMD Public Information from the National Cancer Institute

Last Updated: February 25, 2014
This information is not intended to replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise disclaims any liability for the decisions you make based on this information.
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